2 Today: Drugs Guest Speaker Robert Tyler, Twin Town Treatment Centers Director of Operations/ Clinical Services 3 Major Theories Media continued
3 Prior Knowledge Which of these drugs do you think causes the most social problems in the U.S.? Why? Alcohol Nicotine Meth-Crystal Meth-Steroids Marijuana Heroin Cocaine/Crack LSD/Acid/Shrooms/PCP Prescription Pills
4 Alcohol is the most widely used and abused substance in the United States.
5 For sociologists, when is drug use considered drug abuse? when acceptable social standards of drug use are violated
6 How do each of these theories explain drug abuse? Structural functionalism Conflict Theory Symbolic Interactionsim Biological Perspective Psychological Perspective Sociological explanationsNon-sociological explanations Focus on the role society and social interaction have on participating in drug abuse Focus on characteristics of individuals that influence participating in drug abuse
7 Biological Theories Genetics may predispose individuals to addiction Children of alcoholics 4x as likely to be alcoholics even when raised apart from biological parents Some people physiologically “wired” to get more pleasure from drugs than others.
8 Psychological Theories Drug abuse is a response to an emotional or personality disorder (depression) Some personality types more susceptible to drug use (anxious, dependent). Drug use may reduce anxiety, loneliness and boredom.
9 Conflict Perspective Drug use is a response to political, social and economic inequality. Escape from frustration caused by inequality. Who would say it?
10 Conflict Perspective Most powerful members of society influence the legality of drugs Groups that benefit from drug use have the power to keep it available
11 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective If the label “drug user” is internalized, drug use will continue, even escalate Who would say it?
12 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Drug users learn motivations and techniques of drug use through interaction with others. “Puff, puff, pass!” “Beef before liquor, never been sicker. Liquor before beer, you’re in the clear!”
13 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Drug subcultures teach the use
14 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective How a drug is labeled can influence use “Legal vs. illegal” “Hard drugs” vs. “Natural”
15 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Labels of what is legal and illegal have changed over time: 1. Opium-1800s – early 1900s, used as a pain killer 2. Amphetamine-based inhalers were available until 1949 3. Cocaine - active ingredient in Coca-Cola until 1906 (replaced by another drug–caffeine)
16 Structural Functionalism Drug abuse is a response to society not working properly Who would say it?
17 Structural Functionalist Perspective Drug abuse can be dysfunctional Crime Violence Family problems
18 Structural Functionalist Perspective Drug use may be functional Pain relief Alertness Artists/musicians
19 Media Literacy Continued
20 How are techniques manipulating viewers? camera angles editing sound effects colors and symbols Analyze Production Techniques How to evaluate media:
21 Symbolic rhetoric techniques of persuasion Symbols Flattery Repetition Fear Sexual images
22 Solutions-Project Censored http://www.projectcensored.org/ Features news stories that mainstream media does not report
23 View: Hooked Illegal Drugs and How They Got That Way MethamphetaminesMethamphetamines start at 0:33
24 Next Class Drugs. Read pages 325-335 Assignment #8 cancelled
25 Societal costs of drug abuse 1.Accidents 2.Crime 3.Family problems 4.Work problems 5.Health problems What are some ways society pays for drug abuse?
26 Health Costs of drug abuse Shortened life expectancy Exposure to HIV Birth defects in children of pregnant users Cancer Liver damage Death
27 Economic Costs of drug abuse Americans are estimated to have spent in 2004: $36 billion on cocaine $11 billion on marijuana $10 billion on heroin $5.4 billion on methamphetamines Government estimates state Americans spend $60 billion dollars a YEAR on illegal drugs
28 Crime Costs of drug abuse Drug users commit a disproportionate number of crimes At the time of arrest 63% of males and females tested positive for cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, or PCP in 2008
29 Family Costs of Alcohol Abuse It is estimated that 8.3 million U.S. children live with at least one parent in need of treatment Children of alcoholics are 4 times more likely to have alcohol or drug problems Higher instances of: violence, insults, yelling serious arguments, threats
30 View: Hooked Illegal Drugs and How They Got That Way Vote: Which drug are you most interested in learning the background of today? a. Cocainea. Cocaine at 5:00 b. Heroinb. Heroin at c. Marijuanac. Marijuana at 5:00 d. Ecstasyd. Ecstasy at 47:00 e. LSDe. LSD at 1:00
31 Cocaine 1. When did it become illegal? 2. Effects on heart? 3. Study with monkeys: 4. Coca leaves: 5. How did it become cocaine? 6. What kind of racism in connected?
32 Ecstasy 1. How does it work? 2. How did it start? 3. When was it first used legally? 4. Problems: 5. When is it put on emergency ban?
33 LSD 1. How did it start? 2. CIA testing purpose? 3. Timothy Leary felt it should be used to____________________
34 War on Drugs Richard Nixon Marijuana Tax Act Harrison Act National Prohibition 1970 Scheduling 115:00 Hooked Illegal Drugs
35 Consequences of drug use Read the article. In a group discuss: What stood out to you most in this story? Prepare to share the following with the class: 1.What are the names of your group members? 2.What is the drug? 2. Summarize the story. 3. What were the consequences of drug use? 4. What other ways can the use of this substance hurt a. Friends/family? b. Personal healthy? c. Society as a whole? Select a recorder and 2-3 speakers to share
36 Which sociological explanation of drug abuse do you agree with most? Least? Why? Structural functionalism A: when society is not functioning properly people use drugs to escape Structural functionalism B: drugs can be functional for some Conflict theory A: drug use provides an escape from frustration felt due to inequality in society Symbolic interactionism A: people learn drug use through the groups they associate with Symbolic interactionism: labels (on people or on the drugs)influence drug use
37 Proposed Solutions to Drug Problems 1.Government Regulation 2.Legalization/Decriminalization 3.Prevention Education 4.Rehabilitation Treatments and Therapy 5.Peer support groups 6.Collective Action
38 Rehab/Treatment Options Inpatient treatment refers to the treatment of drug dependence in a hospital. Outpatient treatment allows individuals to remain in their home and work environments and is often less expensive.
39 Peer Support Groups Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) are associations whose only membership requirement is the desire to stop drinking or taking drugs. AA and NA are self-help groups that offer “sponsors” to each new member and proceed along a continuum of 12 steps to recovery.
40 Peer Groups-12 steps Step 1Step 1 - admit we were powerless over our addiction Step 2Step 2 - believe we can restore our lives Step 3Step 3 - Make a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God Step 4Step 4 - Make a moral inventory of ourselves Step 5Step 5 - Admit to God, to ourselves, and others the nature of our wrongs Step 6Step 6 – Prepare for God remove all these defects of character Step 7Step 7 - Humbly asked God to remove our shortcomings Step 8Step 8 - Make a list of all persons we had harmed, make amends with them all Step 9Step 9 - Made direct amends to such people wherever possible Step 10Step 10 - Continued to take personal inventory Step 11Step 11 – Use prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God Step 12Step 12 - Having had a spiritual awakening as the result of these steps, we tried to carry this message to other addicts, and to practice these principles in all our affairs
41 Prevention Education among youth Failure of D.A.R.E (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) Or Alternatives to youth drug education 1. Read ONE of the articles 2. What are 3 important points made by the author? 3. Share findings with 1 or 2 others who had a different article than you
42 Prevention education for athletes ATLAS (Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids) The product of 10 years of research, ATLAS is a multicomponent school-based program for male high school athletes (13 to 19 years old). Uses positive peer pressure and role modeling to reduce the use of: Anabolic steroids Alcohol and other drugs Performance-enhancing supplements Instruction led by student athlete peers and facilitated by coaches
43 What is the most commonly used and most heavily trafficked illegal substance in the world? marijuana
44 Should marijuana be legalized? Measure to legalize marijuana was on California's November ballot in 2010 but did not pass
45 2.The libertarian Alternative: Superior Court Judge Jim Gray on the futility of the war on drugs Should illegal drugs be de-criminalized? 1. Time to Legalize Drugs? Ethan Nadelmann on FOX News
46 Think critically Evaluate. Which solution to drug problems do you think is best or worst? Explain your thinking. Government Regulation Legalization/Decriminalization Prevention Education (DARE or others) Rehabilitation Treatments and Therapy Peer support groups (AA) Collective Action (Mothers Against Drunk Driving- MADD)
47 Service Learning Agreement Due in 2 weeks Service Learning Agreement At least six hours of actual community service work are required for credit 1.Organization name, address, phone number, web site link ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2.Name and position of administrator you will be working with ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3.Signature of administrator you will be working with to verify planned volunteering ______________________________________Date:_________________ 4.Brief outline of the organization, its mission ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5.Who benefits from the work of this organization? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 6.What service will you be providing? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
48 Quiz 1 next week Study guide will be posted on website Study notes, powerpoint, and text 15 questions multiple choice Bring a scantron and pencil YOU MUST BE ON TIME, first 20 minutes of class will be quiz, followed by lecture If you are late you will not have enough time
49 Illegal Drugs and How They Got That Way b. Heroin c. Marijuana d. Methamphetamines e. Ecstasy f. LSD
50 Before next week Quiz 1 next week Use the study guide (will be on website after class) Investigate a non-profit organization for your 6 hours of volunteer work Service Learning Agreement due in 2 weeks Read Chapter 4 Crime