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香港成为中美网络自由斗争新前线

In Hong Kong, a Proxy Battle Over Internet Freedom Begins

孟建国
去年在香港,人们打开了智能手机电筒,纪念一名死去的抗议者。
去年在香港,人们打开了智能手机电筒,纪念一名死去的抗议者。 Lam Yik Fei for The New York Times
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As Hong Kong grapples with a draconian new security law, the tiny territory is emerging as the front line in a global fight between the United States and China over censorship, surveillance and the future of the internet.
随着香港努力面对严厉的新国安法,这个弹丸之地正在成为中美两国围绕着审查、监控和互联网未来展开的全球斗争的前线。
Long a bastion of online freedom on the digital border of China’s tightly managed internet, Hong Kong’s uneasy status changed radically in just a week. The new law mandates police censorship and covert digital surveillance, rules that can be applied to online speech across the world.
香港长期以来是处于中国严格管理的互联网数字边界上的网络自由堡垒,但它的不安稳地位已在短短一周内发生了根本的改变。新国安法要求警察进行审查和秘密的数字监控,这些规则可适用于世界各地的网络言论。
Now, the Hong Kong government is crafting web controls to appease the most prolific censor on the planet, the Chinese Communist Party. And the changes threaten to further inflame tensions between China and the United States, in which technology itself has become a means by which the two economic superpowers seek to spread influence and undercut each other.
现在,香港政府正在制定网络控制方案,以满足地球上管得最多的审查机构——中国共产党。这个变化可能会进一步加剧中美之间的紧张关系,技术本身已经成为这两个经济超级大国寻求扩大影响力和削弱彼此的一种手段。
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Caught in the middle are the city’s seven million residents, online records of rollicking political debate — some of which may now be illegal — and the world’s largest internet companies, which host, and by extension guard, that data.
被夹在中间的是香港的700万居民、政治辩论的在线记录——其中一些现在可能属于非法——以及世界上最大的互联网公司,它们托管并保护着这些数据。
A standoff is already brewing. Many big tech companies, including Facebook, Google, Twitter, Zoom and LinkedIn, have said in the past two days that they would temporarily stop complying with requests for user data from the Hong Kong authorities. The Hong Kong government, in turn, has made it clear that the penalty for noncompliance with the law could include jail time for company employees.
一场对峙已在酝酿中。包括Facebook、谷歌(Google)、Twitter、Zoom和领英(LinkedIn)在内的许多大型科技公司在过去两天里都表示,它们将暂停按香港当局要求提供用户数据的做法。香港政府则明确表示,不遵守国安法的处罚可能包括公司员工被判刑。
Based on the law, the Hong Kong authorities have the remit to dictate the way people around the world talk about the city’s contested politics. A Facebook employee could potentially be arrested in Hong Kong if the company failed to hand over user data on someone based in the United States who Chinese authorities deemed a threat to national security.
根据新国安法,香港当局有权决定世界各地的人如何谈论这座城市有争议的政治。如果中国政府认为某个身在美国的人对国家安全构成威胁,而Facebook未能向中国政府提供此人的用户数据的话,Facebook的员工有可能会在香港被逮捕。
“If Facebook refuses to give national security data, its service may be terminated in Hong Kong, and it will lose access to the Hong Kong market,” said Glacier Kwong of Keyboard Frontline, a nongovernmental organization that monitors digital rights in Hong Kong.
“如果Facebook拒绝提供国家安全数据,它在香港的服务可能会被终止,它将失去香港市场准入,”监督香港数字权益的非政府组织“键盘战线”的邝颂晴说。
“It’s not impossible that this will happen,” Ms. Kwong added. “China often uses its market and boycotting to make foreign companies listen to their demands.”
“发生这种情况不是不可能的,”邝颂晴补充说。“中国经常用自己的市场和抵制,让外国公司听从他们的要求。”
上周,香港警方举着一面旗帜警告抗议者,他们的行为可能违反中国新颁布的《国家安全法》。
上周,香港警方举着一面旗帜警告抗议者,他们的行为可能违反中国新颁布的《国家安全法》。 Lam Yik Fei for The New York Times
TikTok, a video app owned by the Chinese internet giant ByteDance, went even further than its American rivals, saying it would withdraw its app from stores in Hong Kong and make it inoperable to users there within a few days. The company has said that managers outside China call the shots on key aspects of its business, including rules about data.
中国互联网巨头字节跳动旗下的视频应用TikTok比其美国竞争对手走得更远,表示将在几天内将该应用从香港的网店下架,并让那里的用户无法使用。该公司曾说,中国以外的管理人员对公司业务有关键决定权,包括有关数据的规定。
While it is not clear how widely Hong Kong’s government will enforce the law, the looming legal fights could determine whether the city falls behind China’s digital Iron Curtain or becomes a hybrid where online speech and communications are selectively policed.
尽管尚不清楚香港政府将以多大力度来执行国安法,但即将到来的法律斗争可能将决定香港是落入中国的数字铁幕之后,还是变成一个在线言论和通讯受警察选择性监控的地方。
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The technological Cold War between China and the United States is playing out on various fronts around the world. The trade war has ensnared Chinese tech giants like Huawei and ZTE, while American companies complain of industrial policies that favor Chinese businesses at home and subsidize them abroad. Beijing’s severe digital controls have kept companies like Google and Facebook from operating their services in mainland China.
中美之间的技术冷战正在世界上多条战线展开。贸易战已让华为和中兴等中国的科技巨头陷入困境,与此同时,美国公司抱怨中国的产业政策,称其在国内偏袒中国企业,在海外为其提供补贴。北京严格的数字管制让谷歌和Facebook等公司无法在中国大陆提供服务。
Though U.S. internet companies still earn billions of dollars in Chinese ad revenue, a decision to go along with the Hong Kong rules would risk the ire of Washington, where there has been bipartisan condemnation of the security law. New blocks on American businesses could also trigger retaliation.
虽然美国互联网公司仍在中国赚取数十亿美元的广告收入,但如果它们决定遵守香港的新国安法的话,则可能会激怒华盛顿,港区国安法已受到美国两党的谴责。中国针对美国企业的新禁令也可能引发美方的报复。
The American secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, said on Monday that the Trump administration was considering blocking some Chinese apps, which he has called a threat to national security.
美国国务卿迈克·庞皮欧(Mike Pompeo)周一说,特朗普政府正在考虑屏蔽一些中国应用,他称这些应用对国家安全构成威胁。
“I don’t want to get out in front of the president, but it’s something we are looking at,” he said in an interview on Fox News.
 “我不想抢在总统前面,但这是我们正在考虑的事情,”庞皮欧在接受福克斯新闻(Fox News)采访时说。
A Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman, Zhao Lijian, defended the law at a news conference on Tuesday, saying that it would make a more “stable and harmonious” Hong Kong.
中国外交部发言人赵立坚在周二的例行记者会上为国安法辩护,称它将使香港更加“安定和谐”。
“The horses will run faster, the horses will run happier, the stocks will sizzle hotter, and the dancers will dance better. We have full confidence in Hong Kong,” he said, alluding to a quote from the late Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping about the city.
“马跑得更欢,股炒得更热,舞跳得更好。我们对香港的未来充满信心,”赵立坚说,他借用了已故中国领导人邓小平对香港回归的评论。
Google’s experience over the past year shows the fraught position that the largest U.S. internet companies are in. As the Hong Kong police struggled to contain sprawling protests across the city in 2019, they turned to internet companies for help. Overall data requests and takedown orders from police more than doubled in the second half of 2019 from the first half to over 7,000 requests, according to a pro-democracy lawmaker, Charles Mok.
谷歌过去一年的经历显示了美国最大的互联网公司所处的困境。香港警方在2019年努力控制遍布全市的抗议活动时,曾寻求互联网公司的帮助。民主派立法会议员莫乃光说,警方提出的数据请求和删除命令的总数在2019年下半年比上半年增加了一倍多,达到7000多个。
去年6月的抗议者。由于担心依照新国安法被起诉,许多人删除了他们在社交媒体上的帖子和帐号。
去年6月的抗议者。由于担心依照新国安法被起诉,许多人删除了他们在社交媒体上的帖子和帐号。 Kin Cheung/Associated Press
The police asked Google to take down a number of posts, including a confidential police manual that had leaked online, a YouTube video from the hacking group Anonymous supporting the protests, and links to a website that let the public look up personal details about police officers, according to the company’s transparency report.
据谷歌发布的透明度报告,警方向谷歌提出删帖要求,包括泄露到网上的保密警察手册、“匿名者”黑客组织在YouTube上发的一个支持抗议的视频,以及通往一个让公众查找警察个人信息的网站的链接。
In each case, Google said no.
谷歌对上述要求都说了不。
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The new law could punish the company with fines, equipment seizures and arrests if it again declines takedown and data requests. It also would allow the police to potentially seize equipment from companies that host such content.
按照新国安法,如果谷歌再拒绝删除数据的命令和数据请求的话,公司可能受到的惩罚包括罚款、没收设备,以及公司员工被逮捕等。国安法还允许警方没收托管此类内容的公司的设备。
“We see the trend. It’s not just that they’re making more requests, it’s the growing power in the hands of the authorities to do this arbitrarily,” Mr. Mok said, adding that “some of the local smaller platforms will be worried about the legal consequences and they may comply” with government requests.
莫乃光说,“我们看到了一种趋势。不仅是警方在提出更多的要求,而且当局可以任意这么做的权力也越来越大了。”他还表示,“一些本地的更小平台将会担心法律后果,它们可能会按照”政府的要求去做。
Several small local apps associated with the protest movement have already shut down. Eat With You, which labeled restaurants based on their political affiliation, stopped operating the day after the security law was enacted last week. On Sunday, another service that mapped pro-protester and pro-police businesses on Google Maps suspended its services, citing “changing social circumstances.”
几款与抗议活动有关的本土小应用程序已停止运行。国安法上周颁布后的第二天,Eat With You应用程序就不再运行,这款应用曾根据餐馆的政治立场给它们贴上标签。周日,另一个曾在谷歌地图上将支持抗议者和支持警察的企业标出来的服务暂停了服务,理由是“社会环境变了”。
由于一些口号现在可能属于非法,香港人开始举着什么都不写的白纸示威。
由于一些口号现在可能属于非法,香港人开始举着什么都不写的白纸示威。 Lam Yik Fei for The New York Times
Individuals, as well, have taken to self-censoring. Many have taken down posts, removed “likes” for some pro-democracy pages and even deleted accounts on platforms like Twitter, according to activists. Fears that WhatsApp would hand over data drove a spike in downloads of the encrypted chat app Signal. WhatsApp, though, had no recent data requests from Hong Kong police, according to a person familiar with the matter.
个人也已开始自我审查。据活动人士说,许多人已经删掉了帖子,取消了在一些支持民主的网页上点的“赞”,甚至删除了他们在Twitter等平台上的账号。由于担心WhatsApp会交出数据,加密聊天应用Signal的下载量飙升。不过,据一位知情人士说,香港警方最近没有向WhatsApp提出数据请求。
People in Hong Kong have also quickly embraced the types of coded online speech that flourish in China, where internet police and censors patrol the web. One slogan, which the authorities have said could be illegal, was changed from “liberate Hong Kong, revolution of our time” to “shopping in Hong Kong, Times Square,” a reference to a local shopping mall.
香港人也很快采纳了在中国大陆到处可见的间接表达的网络言论。中国大陆的网上有互联网警察和审查员巡逻。例如,当局曾表示“光复香港,时代革命”的口号可能违反国安法,这条口号已被改为“购物香港,时代广场”,后者是当地的一个购物中心。
In other cases, posters abbreviated the slogan based on Cantonese phonetics, writing simply “GFHG, SDGM.” The unofficial anthem of the protests, “Glory to Hong Kong,” has had its lyrics converted into numbers that sound roughly like the lyrics. “05 432 680, 04 640 0242,” goes the opening.
其他的例子包括,用粤语拼音首字母把上述口号简写为“GFHG,SDGM”,抗议活动的非正式主题歌《愿荣光归香港》的歌词被转换成听起来与歌词谐音的数字,比如第一句歌词是“05 432 680,04 640 0242”。
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Companies, meanwhile, have the option of shifting data away from Hong Kong. Lento Yip, chairman of the Hong Kong Internet Service Providers Association, said he noticed an uptick in businesses relocating servers out of the city in June, though he wasn’t certain about their motivations.
与此同时,企业有将数据移出香港的选择。香港互联网服务供应商协会主席叶旭晖说,他注意到,将服务器迁出香港的企业数6月份有所增加,但他不清楚这些企业的动机。
“From a business aspect, some websites or content providers might just move to other places. It doesn’t cost much and it’s pretty easy,” Mr. Yip said.
“从业务角度来看,一些网站或内容提供商可能会转移到其他地方去。这样做的成本不高,也很容易,”叶旭晖说。
For companies like Amazon and Google, which have large data centers in Hong Kong, such a move would be neither cheap nor easy. And their other options are equally complicated.
对亚马逊和谷歌这样的企业来说,它们在香港有大型数据中心,将数据搬走既不便宜,也不容易。他们的其他选择也同样复杂。
Moving all employees out of the city as well would insulate firms from arrests, but it may not be feasible. Facebook in some cases restricts speech based on geographies.
将所有员工迁出香港能使公司员工避免被逮捕,但这可能并不可行。Facebook在某些情况下会根据地域限制言论。
There are potential technical workarounds that could help guard companies against the law, according to Edmon Chung, a member of the board of directors of the Internet Society of Hong Kong, a nonprofit dedicated to the open development of the internet.
香港互联网协会执行委员钟宏安说,有一些潜在的技术应变方法,可能有助于保护公司免受国安法的影响。香港互联网协会是一家致力于互联网开放发展的非营利组织。
The rules stipulate that tech companies may avoid takedown requests if the technology necessary to comply with some rules is “not reasonably available,” which Mr. Chung said opened up the possibility of using encryption, storing content in multiple places and other methods of avoiding scrutiny.
国安法实施细则规定,如果科技公司执行删除内容要求的技术并非“合理可得”,公司可避免删除请求。钟宏安说,这让使用加密、将内容存放在多个地方,以及其他避免审查的方法成为可能。
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He added that the response from both abroad and inside Hong Kong could still go a long way toward shaping the law and how it is applied.
他还说,海外和香港本地的反应对执行国安法的形式和具体做法仍能起很大作用。
“If the people in Hong Kong stand up to this, it might not be as bad as what is in mainland China,” Mr. Chung said.
“如果香港人民不在国安法面前屈服,这里的情况可能不会像中国大陆那么糟,”钟宏安说。
“How Hong Kong people get around it and circumvent it and create new types of speech to continually challenge the party line is something that remains to be seen, and I remain hopeful that the free spirit in Hong Kong will hold up,” he said.
“香港人民如何绕过这个法律、规避这个法律,创造新型言论来不断挑战中共的路线,还有待观察。我对香港的自由精神能够保持下去仍充满希望,”他说。

Raymond Zhong对本文有报道贡献。Lin Qiqing和Claire Fu对本文有研究贡献。

孟建国(Paul Mozur)是时报科技记者,关注亚洲地缘政治与科技的交叉领域。他曾两次入围普利策奖。欢迎在Twitter上关注他:@paulmozur

翻译:纽约时报中文网

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Summary | 24 Annotations
Proxy
2020/07/08 03:26
grapples with
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censorship, surveillance
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radically
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changed
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mandates
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prolific
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appease
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inflame tensions
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undercut
2020/07/08 03:32
A standoff is already brewing
2020/07/08 03:33
have the remit to dictate
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contested
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politics
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hybrid
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e looming legal fights
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ensnared Chinese tech giants
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bipartisan condemnation
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alluding to a quote
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fraught position
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confidential police manual
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abbreviated
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encryption
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get around it and circumvent it
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