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黃靜芝
112 articles
My Web Markups - 黃靜芝
  • Animated
  • Animated Percentage Bar by PowerPoint School.pptxAnimated Percentage Bar by PowerPoint School.pptx開啟擷取選擇開啟工具變更Ct Huanghct22110@gmail.comGoogle+ 個人資料–隱私權設定Google 帳戶Ct Huanghct22110@gmail.com (預設)陳靜芳tif09391@gmail.com您所有的品牌帳戶 »新增帳戶登出this.gbar_=this.gbar_||{};(function(_){var window=this; try{ _.Pc=function(a,c,d){if(!a.f)if(d instanceof Array)for(var e in d)_.Pc(a,c,d[e]);else{e=(0,_.r)(a.B,a,c);var f=a.w+d;a.w++;c.setAttribute("data-eqid",f);a.o[f]=e;c&&c.addEventListener?c.addEventListener(d,e,!1):c&&c.attachEvent?c.attachEvent("on"+d,e):a.A.log(Error("e`"+c))}}; }catch(e){_._DumpException(e)} try{ _.Qc=!_.y||_.yb(9);_.Rc=!_.y||_.yb(9);_.Sc=_.y&&!_.wb("9");_.Tc=function(){if(!_.l.addEventListener||!Object.defineProperty)return!1;var a=!1,c=Object.defineProperty({},"passive",{get:function(){a=!0}});_.l.addEventListener("test",_.wa,c);_.l.removeEventListener("test",_.wa,c);return a}(); var Uc;Uc=function(a){return _.hb?"webkit"+a:_.db?"o"+a.toLowerCase():a.toLowerCase()};_.Vc=Uc("AnimationEnd");_.Wc=Uc("TransitionEnd"); 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2 annotations
  • 臨床閱讀常用詞彙表 A Absolute risk increase (ARI) 絕對風險增加比 絕對風險在實驗組與對照組間不良結果(或擬觀察之結果)差異之絕對值,算法為實驗組事件發生率與對照組事件發生率差值之絕對值,當觀察一個臨床處置(如裝支架)所致之死亡率或發生率的降低時,即是著重於絕對風險差;反之,如係觀察如止痛劑對疼痛緩解之成效,則是著重於絕對風險增加比 Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR) 絕對風險差 Absolute risk 絕對風險 Algorithm 決策演析圖 以步驟流程方式呈現針對某一臨床問題/處置的治療或操作指引 Allocation concealment 分組隱匿 分組隱匿是指在臨床試驗中,為不管是臨床照護相關人員(如醫師、護理人員或其他相關人員)或病患,都不知道下一個收案的病患會被分到對照組或控制組的那一組。分組隱匿為確保隨機對照試驗的正確執行之重要原則之一。 Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) 臨床指引品質評估(機構) AGREE為目前國際上主要的臨床指引品質評估機構之一,1998年歐盟支持的一個生物醫學及健康研究計畫下開始進行指引品質評估的研議,發展出AGREE指引品質評估工具,其後於2004年7月於英國成立The AGREE Research Trust (ART)以提升AGREE指引評估工具在國際間之推廣運用。 B Blinding 盲法 盲法,係研究過程中,使部分或全部的研究相關人員包括醫療照護人員、病人、結果分析人員等,均不知道那一個受試者或病人被分配至那一組接受試驗或治療的研究設計方法。 C Campbell Collaboration (C2) 坎貝爾合作組織 坎貝爾合作組織,為實證社會科學之重要國際性組織,任務功能類似實證醫學界的考科藍合作組織(Cochrane Collaboration),主要以推展針對社會科學及教育等專業領域的實證研究及應用推廣。 Canadian Medical Association (CMA) 加拿大醫學會 加拿大醫學會,其下所建置的Infobase資訊平台收集加拿大國內完整的各科臨床指引。 Case-control study 病例對照研究 病例對照研究係針對研究者有興趣的特定疾病或試驗結果,比較族群中有該疾病或結果(試驗組)與無該疾病或結果(對照組)的二群人,找出疾病或結果與其先前暴露的危險因子之關連性。對少數或罕見且既往暴露可被準確量測的疾病,病例對照研究有助於相關性的確定,且一般上多都採回溯性研究方式進行,但也不全然只能採回溯性研究方式進行。(資料來源Green S, Higgins J, editors. Glossary. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.5 [updated May 2005]. http://www.cochrane.dk/cochrane/handbook/handbook.htm [(accessed 30/08/2006)]. Clinical pathways 臨床路徑 臨床路徑,係將特定之臨床治療的時間、流程、內容等建立標準模式,讓符合該特定臨床表徵的病患在住院接受治療期間均依該標準模式進行其治療計畫,標準化的模式可作為醫療人員照顧病患之參考與指標,且不易因人員的素質差異,影響到醫療品質的穩定。 Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) 臨床診療指引 臨床診療指引,定義為“以系統性方法發展的醫療建議或陳述,用以協助醫師與病人決定在特定的臨床情況下適當之醫療照護”。美國IOM對好的臨床指引之規範包括指引內容清楚、有效、可信、具臨床應用性及彈性、提供證據強度、結果可預期、多專業參與指引發展、定期檢討及適當的文件形式等。(Institute of Medicine (1990). Clinical Practice Guidelines: Directions for a New Program, M.J. Field and K.N Lohr (eds.) Washington, DC: National Academy Press) Cochrane Collaboration 考科藍合作組織 考科藍合作組織,為實證醫學重要之國際性組織,主要成立目的在推展系統性文獻回顧研究之進行,在合作組織之下,目前全球共有13個考科藍中心(Cochrane Center)及15個子機構,肩負起實證研究的重要任務;針對各個不同領域另有共有52個文獻回顧研究團隊(Review Groups)(2008.12更新) Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) 臨床試驗註冊資料庫 詳參Cochrane Library Cochrane Library 考科藍圖書館 考科藍圖書館,收錄考科藍協作所有研究成果、臨床試驗註冊、系統文獻回顧資料庫等資料,包含下列子資料庫: 1. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CDSR (Cochrane Reviews):CDSR收錄所有由Cochrane Review Groups所完成或進行中(protocol)的系統性文獻回顧研究。 2. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, DARE (Other Reviews):DARE收錄所有非由Cochrane所review的系統性文獻回顧研究之”摘要”,並提供文獻品質之評核,DARE主要由設於英國約克大學、隸屬英國NHS的Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD)負責資料庫定期更新。 3. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CENTRAL (Clinical Trials):CENTRAL臨床試驗註冊資料庫收錄詳細的臨床試驗主題、文獻書目、摘要,不含全文,資料來源包含發表於MEDLINE、EMBASE及其他期刊等資料庫,以及未發表的參考文獻來源如僅於研討會發表之文獻報告,約3/5的資料由MEDLINE取得,其他則由包括各Cochrane Review Groups依其主要興趣領域所收集的臨床試驗文獻,整個收到的資料再由US Cochrane Center作統整再納入Cochrane Library。 4. Cochrane Database of Methodology Reviews (Methods Reviews):收錄針對研究方法的相關文獻研究,目前一併收錄在CDSR資料庫裏。 5. The Cochrane Methodology Register (Methods Studies):CMR以已發表的書目格式收錄與執行臨床對照試驗方法有關的報告,其中又以系統性回顧文獻研究方法學相關的文章為主,包括期刊、參考書、研討會等由MEDLINE蒐尋或以人工蒐尋所得之文獻,僅臚列文章標題、文章發行書目、摘要(部份),沒有收錄全文。本資料庫由UK Cochrane Center負責維護。 6. Health Technology Assessment Database (Technology Assessments):醫療科技評估資料庫,文獻主要來自英國NHS的Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD)所進行的研究。 7. NHS Economic Evaluation Database (Economic Evaluations):NHS EED經濟效益評估資料庫,收錄超過5000篇以上與成本效益評估分析有關係統性文獻回顧研究摘要。文獻主要來自英國NHS的Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD)所進行的研究。 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/mrwhome/106568753/ProductDescriptions.html)(資料來源: The Cochrane Library /About Cochrane/Product Descriptions) Cohort study 世代研究 世代研究,是一種觀察性研究方法(observational study),一群界定清楚的人 (the cohort) 被追蹤一段時間。檢驗結果( outcome) 在不同次群組之間是否有差異,例如有(或沒有)暴露在某種介入之次群組,觀察其結果發生率。世代研究大多是前瞻性的,但也有少數是回溯性的(必須相關記錄非常清楚)。(資料來源:彰基醫圖電子報第3期) Confidence Interval (CI) 信賴區間 信賴區間,用來表示估計值的準確度,或可能蓋括母群體未知參數在內的隨機區間,一般常用95%CI表示真實數值有95%機率會落在該估計區間。 Conflict of interest (or competing interests) 利益衝突 利益衝突定義為”在某一些情形下,針對某一議題(如病人福祉或研究的效度等)原本的專業判斷可能被其他因素(如錢財收益)不正當地影響”。(資料來源University of York. NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness: CRD guidelines for those carrying out or commissioning reviews. 1996. (CRD Report 4)) Consensus development conference 共識發展會議 共識發展會議,由美國國家衛生院所發展用以輔助作複雜醫療衛生議題的決策,後來亦成為共識法指引發展方式之一種,共識發展會議係由各相關專家、團體、代表等以投票、排序或其他達成共識的互動方法(通常會有公開討論式的論壇),針對臨床介入或研究發現進行評估,再將這些多元團體的決議整合出最終的指引建議。(資料參考:NHS R&D HTA programme Health Technology Assessment 2(3), 1998) Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) 成本利益分析 成本利益分析,指在經濟分析中,將臨床治療或干預的效益,轉換為金錢並進一步比較取可獲得之利益最高者,一般而言,預防性的干預較可能作到CBA分析。 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) 成本效果分析 成本效果分析,指在經濟分析中,比較各不同的治療選擇間,所多花費的成本是否值回臨床上的效果。 Cost-minimization Analysis (CMA) 最小成本分析 最小成本分析,在經濟分析中,當療效沒有差別時,由不同的治療方法中選擇成本最低。 Cost-Utility Analysis (CUA) 成本效用分析 成本效用分析,可視為成本效益分析之一,在效益的比較進一步比較其臨床效果及生活品質方面的結果,通常以品質調整生命年數Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALY)作其分析比較基準。 Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) 由英國NHS的公共衛生資源部門所發展的文獻評讀工具,其中critical appraisal tools針對各種不同研究設計提供不同的評讀表單資源 Critical appraisal 嚴格的文獻評讀
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  • ScienceDirect Visit ScienceDirect to see if you have access via your institution. Article Tools PDF (1 MB) Download Images(.ppt) About Images & Usage Email Article Add to My Reading List Export Citation Create Citation Alert Cited by in Scopus (4) Request Permissions Order Reprints (100 minimum order)   Article Related Video if(typeof addthis == "undefined") { $.getScript("//s7.addthis.com/js/250/addthis_widget.js#pubid=xa-4faab26f2cff13a7"); } Linked Articles Is Topographic Classification Effective for Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients Affected by Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer?Marco Chiappetta, Maria Teresa Congedo, Dania Nachira, Elisa Meacci, Stefano MargaritoraDOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2017.06.054CHEST, Vol. 152, Issue 6ResponseAhmed H. El-Sherief, Charles T. Lau, Nancy A. Obuchowski, Atul C. Mehta, Thomas W. Rice, Eugene H. BlackstoneDOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2017.10.021CHEST, Vol. 152, Issue 6 Related Articles Misclassification of Lymph Nodes in Lung Cancer Staging: Can We Improve?DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2016.10.050Chest, Vol. 151, Issue 4Sonographic Features of Lymph Nodes During Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in Comparison With MediastinoscopyDOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2017.08.690CHEST, Vol. 152, Issue 4Lymph Nodes in Lung Cancer: Location, Location, and Location?DOI: https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.14-2767CHEST, Vol. 147, Issue 5 View All Article Related Audio if(typeof addthis == "undefined") { $.getScript("//s7.addthis.com/js/250/addthis_widget.js#pubid=xa-4faab26f2cff13a7"); } < Previous Article Next Article > April 2017Volume 151, Issue 4, Pages 776–785 Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. | Privacy Policy | Terms & Conditions | Use of Cookies | About Us | Help & Contact | Accessibility The content on this site is intended for health professionals. Advertisements on this site do not constitute a guarantee or endorsement by the journal, Association, or publisher of the quality or value of such product or of the claims made for it by its manufacturer. $.ajax({ url: "https://journal.chestnet.org/ssoSessionCheck", type: "GET", dataType: "jsonp", success: function (data) { if(data.RefreshSession) { location.reload(); } }, error : function (){ console.warn("can't validate CSAS session."); } }); setTimeout(clearSsoUrlsFun,10000); var iFramesList = document.getElementById("sso-urls-div").getElementsByTagName("iframe"); var renderedIFramesCount = 0; var numberOfIFrames = iFramesList.length; var skipRefresh = false; for (var i = 0; i < iFramesList.length; i++) { var iFrame = iFramesList[i]; iFrame.addEventListener("load", function() { renderedIFramesCount = renderedIFramesCount + 1; if (renderedIFramesCount >= numberOfIFrames) { clearSsoUrlsFun(); } }); } function clearSsoUrlsFun() { if (skipRefresh == false && numberOfIFrames > 0) { skipRefresh = true; $.ajax({ url: "https://journal.chestnet.org/action/clearSsoUrls", type: "GET", dataType: "jsonp", error : errorCallingAjx }); } } function errorCallingAjx(){ console.log("can't delete sso urls .") } a#fixed_hdr_link,a#fixed_hdr_link:hover{text-decoration:none}#jbs-fixed-hdr{background-color:#f8f8f8;border-bottom:.125rem solid #ebebeb;left:0;padding:.75em 0 1.25em;position:fixed;top:0;z-index:3;width:100%;height:30px;overflow:hidden;display:none}#jbs-fixed-hdr #jbs-article-toolbar-title{margin-top:10px;max-width:75%!important;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;overflow:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis;float:left;font-size:13px;}#jbs-fixed-hdr #fixed_hdr-group-right{float:left;width:130px;white-space:nowrap;margin-right:3em;border:1px solid gray;border-radius:5px;padding:4px 0 0 6px;margin-top:-5px;background-color:#E8E8E8;}#jbs-fixed-hdr #fixed_hdr-group-right:hover{background-color:#DCDCDC}#fixedHdrContainer{width:960px;text-align:left}#fixed_hdr_pdf_link{display:inline-block;position:absolute;top:20px;margin-left:8px;cursor:pointer;font-size:12px;}a#fixed_hdr_link{white-space:nowrap;font-weight:700} Download PDF if ($(".denialInfo").length) { } else { function initStickyHdr() { document.getElementById("jbs-article-toolbar-title").innerHTML = document.title; $(window).scroll(function (){ if ($(this).scrollTop() > 300){ $("#jbs-fixed-hdr").css("display","block"); } else { $("#jbs-fixed-hdr").css("display","none"); } }); } setTimeout(initStickyHdr,2000); } function clickPDF() { document.querySelector(".articleToolsContainer ul li.toolPdf a.pdfLink").click(); } Can High-flow Nasal Cannula Reduce the Rate of Endotracheal Intubation in Adult Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure Compared With Conventional Oxygen Therapy and Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation? Ni, Yue-Nan et al.
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  • Rationale: The role of pre- and post-lung transplant pulmonary rehabilitation is to maintain and improve exercise capacity, lung mechanics, peripherial- and respiratory muscle function. Aims: Follow-up the changes of functional and quality of life markers in pre- and post-transplant pulmonary rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: 28 patients (16 COPD FEV1:18±6 %pred, 7 IPF TLC: 46±11 %pred, 4 bronchiectasis FEV1: 28±4 %pred, alveolitis fibrotisans TLC: 31 %pred). participated in a pre- and 8 took part in a post-transplant rehabilitation program (primary diagnosis: 5 COPD, 3 IPF). The rehabilitation program consisted of chest wall-stretching, controlled breathing techniques and personalized exercises of 20-30 minutes by cycling and treadmill 2-3 times per day for 4
  • Rationale: The role of pre- and post-lung transplant pulmonary rehabilitation is to maintain and improve exercise capacity, lung mechanics, peripherial- and respiratory muscle function. Aims: Follow-up the changes of functional and quality of life markers in pre- and post-transplant pulmonary rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: 28 patients (16 COPD FEV1:18±6 %pred, 7 IPF TLC: 46±11 %pred, 4 bronchiectasis FEV1: 28±4 %pred, alveolitis fibrotisans TLC: 31 %pred). participated in a pre- and 8 took part in a post-transplant rehabilitation program (primary diagnosis: 5 COPD, 3 IPF). The rehabilitation program consisted of chest wall-stretching, controlled breathing techniques and personalized exercises of 20-30 minutes by cycling and treadmill 2-3 times per day for 4 weeks. Lung function, chest expansion (CE), 6 minutes walking distance (6MWD), modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), COPD Assessment Test (CAT), breath holding time, grip strength were measured.Results: Pre-transplant pulmonary rehabilitation resulted significant improvement in CE (3,06±1,76 vs. 4,40±1,03 cm, p<0,05), CAT (21±6 vs. 16±6), breath holding time (18±9 vs. 30±15 sec), 6MWD (295±99 vs. 332±98m), p<0,05. FEV1, FVC, mMRC, grip strength did not change significantly. Post-transplant rehabilitation resulted significant improvement in CE (3,67±2,76 vs. 5,63±2,06 cm), CAT (17±7 vs. 8±4), breath holding time (26±6 vs. 42±16 sec), FEV1 (53±27 vs. 73±26 %pred) and FVC (56±21 vs. 73±21 %pred), p<0.05. The 6MWD, mMRC and grip strength did not change significantly.Conclusion: Our results underline the importance of perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation in the complex management of lung transplantation.
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  • Lung transplantation is an established treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease. It has been observed that despite near-normal lung function, exercise intolerance and reductions in quality of life (QOL) often persist up to years after transplantation. Several modifiable pre- and posttransplant factors are known to contribute to these persisting impairments. Physiological changes associated with severe and chronic lung disease, limb muscle dysfunction, inactivity/deconditioning, and nutritional depletion can affect exercise capacity and physical functioning in candidates for lung transplantation. After transplantation, extended hospital and intensive care unit stay, prolonged sedentary time, persisting inactivity, immunosuppressant medications and episodes of organ rejection may all impact lung recipients' recovery. Available evidence will be reviewed and content will be proposed (both evidence and experience based) for rehabilitation interventions prior to transplantation, during hospitalization after transplantation, and in both the immediate (≤12 months after hospital discharge) and long-term (>12 months after hospital discharge) posttransplant phase. Outpatient rehabilitation programs including supervised exercise training have been shown to be effective in improving limb muscle dysfunction, exercise capacity, and QOL both before and after transplantation if offered appropriately. Unmet research needs included the absence of sufficiently powered randomized controlled trials measuring the effects of rehabilitation interventions on crucial long-term outcomes such as sustained improvements in QOL, participation in daily activity, survival, incidence of morbidities and cost-effectiveness. Remotely monitored (telehealth) home-based exercise or pedometer-based walking interventions might be interesting alternatives to supervised outpatient rehabilitation interventions in the long-term posttransplant phase and warrant further investigation.
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  • series
  • Safety and efficacy of antifibrotic drugs in IPF patients undergoing LTx were investigated in a single-centre retrospective cohort analysis. Results A total of nine patients, receiving antifibrotic therapy for 419 ± 315 days until subsequent LTx, were included. No major side effects were noted. Significant weight loss occurred during antifibrotic treatment (p = 0.0062). FVC tended to stabilize after 12 weeks of treatment in most patients. A moderate decline in FVC, TLC and DLCO was noted during the whole pretransplant time period of antifibrotic therapy. Functional exercise capacity and lung allocation score remained unchanged. No post-operative thoracic wound healing problems, nor severe early anastomotic airway complications were attributable to prior antifibrotic treatment. None of the patients developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction after a median follow-up of 19.8 (11.2–26.5) months; and post-transplant survival was 100% after 1 year and 80% after 2 years. Conclusions Antifibrotic drugs can probably be safely administered in IPF patients, possibly attenuating disease progression over time, while awaiting LTx. KeywordsAntifibroticsIPFLung transplantationNintedanibPirfenidoneSafety BackgroundIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disease characterized by chronic, fibrosing interstitial pneumonitis of unknown cause, associated with a histopathologic and/or radiologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) [1]. The course of the disease is unpredictable. Most patients demonstrate a slow, gradual progression; some patients remain stable; while others have an accelerated decline, sometimes due to repeated exacerbations. Consequently, respiratory failure is the most common cause of death in IPF. Once diagnosed, timely referral to an expert centre is therefore essential to assess eligibility for pharmacological therapy and/or lung transplantation (LTx) [2].In October 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two anti-fibrotic drugs for IPF - pirfenidone and nintedanib - based on the results of large randomized clinical trials (CAPACITY-1, CAPACITY-2 and ASCEND with pirfenidone; TOMORROW, INPULSIS-1 and INPULSIS-2 with nintedanib) demonstrating a reduction in the rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in mild to moderate IPF [3, 4, 5]. Post-hoc analysis also demonstrated a risk reduction for IPF-related mortality with pirfenidone compared to placebo (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.76, p = 0.006) [6], a same trend which was also observed with nintedanib (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.46–1.08; p = 0.0954) [7].Despite these positive findings, it should be emphasized that both antifibrotic drugs do not represent a ‘cure’ for IPF, but only aim to attenuate the decline in FVC, at best resulting in temporary disease stabilization. Moreover, side effects (typically nausea, anorexia, malaise, or rash for pirfenidone; and diarrhea for nintedanib) or adverse events (mainly toxic hepatitis) may force some patients to reduce or even stop treatment, which may again accelerate disease progression. Hence, early evaluation and referral for LTx, which presently remains the only definitive treatment option for well-selected IPF patients, is highly recommendable, particularly since IPF patients have the highest waiting list mortality, due to disease progression. The recent introduction of the lung allocation score (LAS) in some countries may nevertheless decrease future waiting list mortality in IPF. Implementation of the LAS indeed has already led to a substantial increase in the proportion of LTx performed for IPF, making it the most common indication for LTx and reducing waiting list time for IPF in these countries [8].With increasing use of antifibrotics following recent FDA approval, questions arise about their safety in IPF patients undergoing LTx, yet safety data in this specific setting are currently lacking. The antifibrotic properties of pirfenidone result from inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β expression, thus attenuating myofibroblast differentiation and fibroblast activity [9]. Nintedanib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which blocks receptors for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thus inhibiting downstream signaling in (myo-)fibroblasts [10]. Both antifibrotics may hence theoretically impair post-operative wound healing and/or cause bronchial anastomotic complications following LTx. Nintedanib, by inhibition of VEGF and PDGF, may in theory also result in an increased peri-operative bleeding risk. Moreover, it is unclear whether antifibrotic treatment, when effectively achieving disease stabilization for several months, would influence LAS or may even interfere with referral for LTx, given an upper age limit for LTx used in most centres.In the current study we therefore report on safety and efficacy of pretransplant antifibrotics in IPF patients undergoing LTx. Pretransplant pulmonary function, functional exercise capacity; and immediate and long-term post-operative outcomes, including the early post-operative course, presence of bronchial anastomotic complications, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and survival, were retrospectively assessed. Methods Study design and population This is a single-centre, retrospective analysis of IPF patients undergoing LTx in a large volume transplant centre at a tertiary care hospital. The current study was approved by the Leuven University Hospital Ethical Review Board (S51577) and patients gave informed consent. IPF diagnosis was confirmed in by a multidisciplinary board discussion, including an expert chest physician specialized in interstitial lung disease (ILD) (WW), an experienced chest imaging radiologist and a specialized lung-pathologist (EKV). For the current study, we included all IPF patients up to December 2015 who had undergone LTx in our centre whilst being treated with either pirfenidone or nintedanib. There were no IPF patients receiving antifibrotic drugs who died on the waiting list before LTx. Pirfenidone was initiated between September 2008 and September 2013; and patients were subsequently transplanted between November 2008 and April 2015. Nintedanib was started between August 2010 and January 2012; and patients were transplanted between March 2011 and October 2014. In Belgium, pirfenidone was approved for mild to moderate IPF (FVC >50%predicted (%pred) and Diffusion Capacity (DLCO) >35%pred) in December 2012 and nintedanib has been approved for mild to severe IPF (FVC ≥50%pred and DLCO ≥30%pred) since December 2015. Patients in whom antifibrotic therapy was initiated before these respective dates thus received the drugs in the context of clinical trials, thereafter patients received open-label treatment according to reimbursement rules. All IPF patients were evaluated on regular intervals (every 3 to 4 months) at a specialized outpatient ILD consultation by a specialized physician (WW) and nurse, who checked compliance and tolerance of their antifibrotic therapy. Data collection Data were retrospectively collected from the patients’ electronical medical files, including clinical and demographical variables, duration of antifibrotic treatment, laboratory results, anastomotic problems (scored according to MDS classification as previously reported, [11]), evolution of pulmonary function and functional exercise capacity. The estimated annual decline in pulmonary function parameters (FVC, Total Lung Capacity (TLC) and DLCO) was calculated based on the difference in pulmonary function parameters between the start of antifibrotic therapy (‘baseline’) and at the time of LTx, adjusted for the number of months therapy was taken (monthly decline) and extrapolated to 1 year (monthly decline x12). The same approach was used regarding the decrease in six minute walking test (6MWT) between start of therapy and LTx. LAS was retrospectively assessed at start of antifibrotic therapy, at LTx listing (data summarized in Table 1) and at LTx. However, we used LAS at start of antifibrotic therapy for further statistical analyses regarding pre-LTx evolution of LAS, because most patients were initiated on antifibrotics before LTx listing.Table 1 Recipient and donor demographics of the IPF treatment group and historical control group IDRecipient Gender (M/F)Recipient Age (Years)Anti-fibrotic DrugCardio-Pulmonary RehabilitationTime on Therapy (Days)FVC at start (%pred)TLC at start (%pred)DLCO at start (%pred)6MWT at start (m)Time on WL (Days)LAS at listingType of LTx (S/SS)Donor Gender (M/F)Donor Age (Years)Type of DonorCMV Donor/Recipient1F62PFDno73591724652976232SSF17DBDD+/R+2M61PFDCPR54571613737917931SSF67DCD cat IIID-/R-3M51PFDCPR3878880475522935SSM37DBDD+/R-4M63PFDCPR5395245323845130SSM55DBDD-/R+5M55PFDCPR1885652356312529SSM23DBDD+/R-6M64PFDno11562483950316333SSM35DCD cat VD+/R+7M64PFDno6579562826741937SF42DBDD+/R-8M65NINno100380695859815531SSM62DBDD+/R-9M56NINno1945856292757432SSM39DCD cat IIID-/R- Mean or Median60.1 ± 4.9  419 ± 31570.8 ± 14.559.9 ± 11.739.0 ± 9.8457.6 ± 135.6155 (40–299)32.2 ± 2.5  43.6 ± 17.1  1M57/no/////27933SSF48DCD cat IIID-/R+2M62/no/////15335SSF66DBDD+/R+3M55/no/////1734SSM74DBDD+/R+4M59/CPR/////27432SSM22DCD cat IIID-/R+5M59/CPR/////25329SSM57DBDD-/R-6M65/CPR/////11226SM37DBDD+/R+ Mean or Median59.5 ± 3.6a       203 (88–275)a31.5 ± 3.4a  50.7 ± 19.a  IDIschemic Time 1th/2nd Lung (min)Immuno-suppressive RegimenTime to Extubation (Hours)PGD at 72 hTime on ICU (Days)Time in Hospital (Days)AR or LB Episodes (Number)Most Severe AR or LB (Grade)Respiratory infection before Discharge (Presence = 1)Respiratory Pathogen before DischargeAnastomotic Complications (Details in Text)1187/320rATG/FK/MMF/CS340616000/02432/580rATG/FK/MMF/CS203720111 E. coli, S. viridans M2aD0aS0 (POD 30)3498/694No ATG, FK/MMF/CS370416221 A. baumanii, E. coli, S. aureus M3bD2cS2f (POD 204)4417/631rATG/FK/MMF/CS6511326110/M2aD0aS0 (POD 30)5366/515rATG/FK/MMF/CS412617001 C. freundii 06385/582rATG/FK/MMF/CS371416320/07341rATG/CsA/AZA/CS332321001 H. influenza, MRSA 08180/356rATG/FK/MMF/CS17831028131 H. influenza, S. pneumoniae M1aD0aS0 (POD 90)9239/356rATG/FK/MMF/CS382523120/0 338 ± 113/504 ± 142 37 (33.5–53)2 (0.5–2.5)6.4 ± 3.220.3 ± 4.61 (0–1.5)1 (0–2)   1404/626rATG/FK/MMF/CS720719120/02220/412rATG/FK/MMF/CS161725231 S. aureus M3bD0aS0 (POD 30)3288/431rATG/FK/MMF/CS432360253111 P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, M3bD2bS0 (POD 40)4276/423rATG/FK/MMF/CS4821532111 E. faecalis M2aD0aS0 (POD 14)5209/439rATG/CsA/AZA/CS4822332001 K. oxytoca M3aD0S0 (POD 17)6186rATG/CsA/AZA/CS241820210/0 264 ± 79a/466 ± 90a 48 (22–162)a1.5 (0.8–2.3)a20.0 ± 20.6b63.5 ± 93a1 (0.75–2.0)a1 (0.75–2.25)a   IDTime of Follow-up(Months)Status (Dead = 1)Last FVC Post-LTx (%pred)Last FEV1 Post-LTx (%pred)Last FEV1/FVC Post-LTx (%pred)17.701451478628.601069066316.90706877421.90906758525.80939380627.1012312679719.8111010776813.8011911575956.3013214184 19.8 (11.2–26.5) 109 ± 23.1106 ± 29.175.7 ± 8.8114.901177666223.501049976337.00676173438.601079267552.401045843612.21798281 30.3 (14.2–42.1) 96.3 ± 19.178.0 ± 16.467.7 ± 13.3 Data are expressed as mean ± SD, median (interquartile range) or as total values where appropriate Abbreviations: 6MWT 6 min walking test, AR Acute (cellular) Rejection, AZA azathioprine, cat category, CMV Cytomegalovirus, CPR Cardio-Pulmonary Rehabilitation, CS corticosteroids, CsA cyclosporine A, D donor, DBD donation after brain death, DCD donation after cardiac death, DLCO diffusion capacity, F Female, FK tacrolimus, FVC Forced Vital Capacity, ICU Intensive Care Unit, ID identification, LAS lung allocation score, LB lymphocytic bronchiolitis, LTx lung transplantation, M male, MDS severity of anastomotic complication according to MDS classification, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, NIN nintedanib, PFD pirfenidone, PGD primary graft dysfunction, R recipient, rATG rabbit Anti-Thymocyte Globulin, S single, SS sequential single, TLC Total Lung Capacity, WL waiting list a:p > 0.05 (not statistically significant compared to treated group), b:p = 0.021 compared to treated group Historical controls We additionally identified a comparable group of historical controls (n = 6), which consisted of IPF patients who did not receive antifibrotic therapy before LTx, but were transplanted in the same era (7/2010 to 9/2014), had comparable age and lung function at the time of LTx compared to the treatment group: FVC 57.0 (43.0–69.8) %pred (p = 0.69 vs. treatment), TLC 53.0 (42.5–71.0) %pred (p = 1.0 vs. treatment) and DLCO 21.5 (17.0–29.2) %pred (p = 0.11 vs. treatment). Given the small number of available patients, it was impossible to match both groups any further regarding concurrent emphysema (but TLC and DLCO were comparable between both groups, thus excluding major differences due to emphysema), pulmonary hypertension (was not routinely assessed in non-treated IPF patients, no comparison possible with treated group who were all screened at start of antifibrotic therapy) or cardiovascular disease (but major cardiovascular disease is generally an exclusion-criterion to proceed to LTx in any patient). Reasons for not starting antifibrotic therapy in these matched historical controls were: absence of consent (n = 3), DLCO too low for study-inclusion (n = 2) and pending approval by the health care authorities whilst awaiting LTx (n = 1). These historical controls were only used as comparator for the IPF group treated with antifibrotics regarding the annual pre-transplant decline in pulmonary function; and some mportant early post-transplant outcome parameters, including rates of PGD, infection, rejection and anastomotic complications. These historical patients were not the main aim of this study, which focusses on reporting safety and efficacy of antifibrotics in IPF patients undergoing LTx. Statistical analysis All analyses were performed using Graphpad Prism 5a software (San Diego, USA). Results are expressed as mean (± standard deviation) or median (interquartile range) where appropriate. Group means were compared using paired or unpaired t-test; Mann-Whitney test or Wilcoxon signed rank test for normally or not-normally distributed variables, respectively. All reported p-values are two-tailed and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Patients’ characteristics A total of 9 IPF patients were treated with antifibrotics and subsequently underwent LTx: pirfenidone n = 7 (n = 2 study vs. n = 5 open-label treatment), nintedanib n = 2 (both in study). All patients, but one, underwent bilateral LTx and all, but one, were male. Age at LTx was 60.1 ± 4.9 years. Five patients were on continuous oxygen therapy (4 (3.5–4.0) Liters/min) before LTx, while 4 were not (Table 1). Antifibrotic therapy had been initiated 362 (152–578) days before listing for LTx in 6/9 patients, whereas in 3/9 patients antifibrotics were started 48 (27–354) days after transplant listing. In all 9 cases antifibrotic therapy was continued until the day of transplant procedure. Total duration of antifibrotic therapy until LTx was 419 ± 315 days, or 13.8 ± 10.3 months. All patients received the full, recommended dose (i.e. 801 mg tid for pirfenidone and 150 mg bid for nintedanib). Nausea was reported as main side-effect of antifibrotic therapy in 9/9 patients; and 7/9 patients lost weight during treatment (n = 6 pirfenidone, n = 1 nintedanib), in one patient (on pirfenidone) weight remained stable and one patient (on nintedanib) gained 1 kg. Overall, body mass index (BMI) decreased from 27.3 ± 3.2 kg/m2 to 25.8 ± 3.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.0063) during antifibrotic treatment, with an absolute weight loss of 329 ± 360 g per month of treatment (p = 0.0062). None of the patients developed toxic hepatitis, nor discontinued their therapy due to other severe side-effects or adverse events. No acute IPF exacerbations occurred in any of the patients during antifibrotic treatment. Evolution of pretransplant pulmonary function, functional exercise capacity, pulmonary hypertension, renal function and LAS Spirometry was performed at the start of antifibrotic treatment (‘baseline’) and during subsequent follow-up. Consecutive spirometry after six months of antifibrotic therapy was only available in 6/9 patients, as 3 patients (n = 2 pirfenidone, n = 1 nintedanib) underwent LTx within 6 months after initiating therapy (Fig. 1). In these 6/9 patients (n = 5 pirfenidone, n = 1 nintedanib), the absolute decline in FVC after 12 weeks of treatment compared to baseline was −7.0%pred (−1.8 to −11.5), with 4/6 (66.6%) patients having <10% decline in FVC %pred; and only 2/6 (33.3%) patients demonstrating a ≥10% decline in FVC %pred (p = 0.063 vs. start). Nevertheless, an overall absolute decrease in FVC, TLC and DLCO during the whole pretransplant antifibrotic treatment period (i.e. 419 ± 315 days or 59 ± 44 weeks) was observed in these 6/9 patients (Fig. 2). Fig. 1 Forced Vital Capacity in IPF patients with at least 6 months antifibrotic therapy before transplantation. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) (%predicted) is given at the start of antifibrotic therapy (start), 3 months before and respectively 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (mo) after start. Dotted lines connect values in patients (n = 6/9) with consecutive measurements at different time points; p-values (Wilcoxon signed rank test) above each time point are given compared to start; or compared another time point (time-frame indicated by full line) Fig. 2 Pretransplant evolution of pulmonary function and functional exercise capacity following treatment with antifibrotic drugs. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) (a), Total Lung Capacity (TLC) (b), Diffusion capacity (DLCO) (c) (all in (%predicted) and 6 min walk test (6MWT, meter) (d) at start of antifibrotic therapy (start) and at the moment of lung transplantation (LTx) in the included IPF patients. Dotted lines connect values in patients (n = 6/9) with a consecutive measurement at six months and just before transplantation; p-values (Wilcoxon signed rank test) are given for patients that had consecutive measurements The calculated annual decline during treatment for all included patients was: FVC 322.0 (148.3–1074.0) mL or 6.6 (0–23.8) %pred, TLC 360.0 (157.5–1818.0) mL or 6.0 (2.0–25.7) %pred; and DLCO 0.77 (0.40–1.96) mmol/min/Kpa or 7.5 (4.7–18.6) %pred. Interestingly, the measured annual rate of decline in the matched historical controls (without antifibrotic therapy) during the year preceding LTx appeared to be somewhat more severe compared to the group with antifibrotics, although no significant differences were seen: FVC 460.0 (215.0–732.5) mL or 13.0 (4.8–18.0) %pred (p = 0.69); TLC 945.0 mL (362.5–1490) or 10.0%pred (2.0–20.0) (p = 1.0); and DLCO 1.26 (0.38–2.09) mmol/min/Kpa or 14.0 (4.0–24.8) %pred (p = 0.94). 6MWT was performed before the start of antifibrotic therapy and consecutive 6MWT was available in 5/9 patients (all on pirfenidone), of whom 3/5 were enrolled in a pretransplant cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation (CPR) program upon transplant listing and 2/5 were not. 6MWT overall increased with 54 (−260.0–95.5) m after 12 weeks of treatment compared to baseline (p = 0.62), with an improved in 4/5 patients of 74.5 (21.8–95.8) m, while one patient demonstrated a decline of 531 m (patient n°5 in Table 1, no CPR, concomitant decline in FVC of 12%pred during these 12 weeks of treatment). During the whole pretransplant time period of antifibrotic treatment (59 ± 44 weeks), 6MWT did not significantly change compared to baseline (p = 0.89): 6MWT improved compared to baseline in 2/5 patients (+63 m (no CPR) and +142 m (with CPR), respectively), while 6MWT deteriorated in 3/5 patients (one no CPR, two with CPR), in whom there was an absolute decline of −172 (34–531) meters or a monthly decline of −5.2 (2.7–85.7) meters during treatment (Fig. 2). In the historical controls, unfortunately, 6MWD was only available upon listing for LTx, thus no consecutive 6MWT were available for further comparison. Transthoracic echocardiography performed before start of antifibrotic therapy (pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) 31.1 ± 7.4 mmHg) and consecutive echocardiography was available in 4/9 patients, in whom PAP tended to increase during antifibrotic treatment (PAP +9.5 (2.0–15.5) mmHg: p = 0.090). Renal function remained stable during antifibrotic treatment: serum creatinine was 0.96 ± 0.14 mg/dL at start versus 0.95 ± 0.17 mg/dL at LTx (p = 0.97), estimated glomerular filtration rate was 83 ± 13 mL/min/1.73 m2 at start versus 82 ± 14 mL/min/1.73 m2 at LTx (p = 0.83). No hepatic dysfunction was observed in any patient during treatment. LAS did not significantly change during antifibrotic treatment: 32.2 ± 2.5 at start of therapy versus 32.3 ± 1.0 at LTx (p = 0.13). Post-transplant outcomes Patients receiving antifibrotics were listed for 155 (40–299) days before subsequent LTx. Transplant procedures were overall uneventful and only one patient (who had received pirfenidone, had the highest pretransplant PAP of 48 mmHg and underwent single sided LTx) required peri-operative support with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. There were no bleeding problems (i.e. no need for re-thoracotomy for hemothorax, no additional transfusion of blood products for blood loss) in any patient, including those on nintedanib. Overall, patients were extubated after 37.0 (33.5–53.0) hours of ventilation, discharged from the intensive care unit after 6.4 ± 3.2 days and discharged home after a hospital stay of 20.3 ± 4.6 days. There were no problems with post-operative thoracic wound healing or dehiscence in any patient. All patients, but one, received post-operative induction therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin for 3 days; and post-operative immunosuppressive regimen consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids in all patients, except one (transplanted in 2008) who received cyclosporine, azathioprine and steroids (our standard regimen before 2010). No major side effects due to possible drug-interactions with prior antifibrotics were seen in the first days post-LTx. A total of 4/9 patients were included in a clinical trial immediately following LTx: 2 in a therapeutic trial with azithromycin (AZI003, NCT01915082), 1 in an ex-vivo normothermic machine perfusion trial (EXPANDLung, NCT01963780) and 1 in a Diaphragm Pacing trial (NCT02411383), which may obviously influence early and/or late outcomes (including post-transplant evolution of pulmonary function, anastomotic airway complications, primary graft dysfunction (PGD), rejection, infection, CLAD) in these transplant recipients compared to those not included in a trial or historical controls. Overall, incidence of PGD (PGD ≥ 2 in 5/9 patients), early post-operative infection (5/9 patients) and acute cellular rejection (4/9 patients) or lymphocytic bronchiolitis (4/9) during the first 6 months were comparable to findings in the historical controls (all p > 0.5) (Table 1). Anastomotic airway complications were present in 4/9 patients: in two patients (prior pirfenidone) mild anastomotic necrosis without dehiscence or airway narrowing was noted upon discharge after LTx (post-operative day (POD) 30; MDS classification M2aD0aS0 for right-sided anastomosis and M0aD0aS0 for left-sided anastomosis in both patients), with spontaneous and uncomplicated resolution thereafter. In a third patient (initially no anastomotic complications, prior nintedanib), there was mild protrusion of cartilage on POD 90 (M0aD0aS0 for right-sided anastomosis and M1aD0aS0 for left-sided anastomosis), with spontaneous and uncomplicated resolution thereafter. In the fourth patient (initially no anastomotic complications, prior pirfenidone), following infection with Aspergillus fumigatus at POD 186, late-onset (POD 204) anastomotic necrosis occurred with bronchial narrowing and extensive dehiscence (M0aD0aS0 for right-sided anastomosis and M3bD2cS2f for left-sided anastomosis). Despite antifungal treatment, he developed severe symptomatic anastomotic stenosis, which finally required surgical sleeve-resection and reconstruction of the left main bronchus on POD 410. Thereafter, no other problems occurred and the patient currently has a stable pulmonary function at POD 525. The observed anastomotic airway complications, however, did not appear to be more severe or prevalent compared to previously reported data from our centre [11] or to the historical controls, of whom 4/6 controls had early anastomotic airway complications (ranging from M2aD0aS0 to M3bD2bS0; Table 1). Overall, long-term outcome in our cohort was good: after a median follow-up of 19.8 (11.2–26.5) months, currently all patients have a stable pulmonary function (Table 1) and none of the patients has developed CLAD. One patient (who underwent single sided LTx), unfortunately, has died because of non-squamous large cell lung carcinoma of his native IPF lung on POD 615, all other patients are alive and ambulatory at present. Overall survival was 100% after 1 year and 80% after 2 years, respectively. DiscussionLittle is known about safety of antifibrotic therapy with pirfenidone or nintedanib in patients undergoing LTx. Actually only 11 IPF patients receiving pirfenidone; and none receiving nintedanib, included in the large randomized trials with these drugs (comprising a total of 2832 study-subjects) were reported as having been transplanted during antifibrotic treatment, yet detailed outcome data for these patients are lacking [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Only 1 case report has currently been published on pretransplant pharmacological bridging with pirfenidone, allowing stabilization of respiratory function and subsequent single sided LTx in IPF. Anastomic airway complications, however, were not reported in this case [12]. Next to this, there have been two abstracts reporting on this topic, which did not yet result in peer-reviewed papers, but in which, apparently, pirfenidone therapy was not linked to adverse post-transplant events, however follow-up was limited and detailed outcome data missing [13, 14]. In the current case series, we therefore report on pre-operative evolution and post-transplant outcomes of 9 IPF patients, treated with either pirfenidone or nintedanib for a mean of 13.4 months until subsequent LTx and with a median post-transplant follow-up of 19.8 months.According to the same definitions used in larger IPF trials [6, 15], we noted relative stabilization (i.e. < 10% change) of FVC during the first 12 weeks of antifibrotic treatment. Importantly, this early stabilization, or perhaps better attenuated rate of decline, in FVC may by no means be a reason to deny subsequent LTx to eligible patients, because further decline in FVC, lung volumina and DLCO is to be expected despite antifibrotic treatment, as was obvious from our results. The estimated annual decline in FVC during treatment in our cohort, however, would be around 6.6%pred, which corroborates recent findings that both pirfenidone and nintedanib reduce the proportion of patients with a ≥10% decline in FVC %pred after 1 year of treatment [5, 6]. As they may attenuate disease progression, these antifibrotics may thus allow for valuable added time on the LTx waiting list. Next to FVC, 6MWT has also been shown to be a valid outcome measure, both in IPF, in whom the clinically important difference in 6MWT distance is reported to be 24–45 m [3, 4, 5] and in whom 6MWT is associated with changes in pulmonary function and quality-of-life [16]; and in patients awaiting LTx, in whom it is associated with post-transplant survival [17]. A reduction of the decline in 6MWT was also observed in treated patients compared to placebo in pooled analyses of IPF trials [3, 4, 5], which may partly explain why 6MWT overall remained relatively stable during treatment in our cohort, next to the obvious beneficial effects of cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation is some patients. Although the LAS is actually not used in Belgium for prioritizing organ allocation, the calculated LAS (which includes FVC and 6MWT among other parameters) did not significantly change during pretransplant antifibrotic treatment in our cohort. An average LAS of 32 at the time of LTx in our study may seem fairly low for IPF patients, yet LAS was quite comparable between our treated patients and historical controls; and was in the same range (median of ±35) as previously described for IPF patients at LTx listing [18]. We therefore believe that our cohort indeed reflects the general population of IPF patients transplanted during the past 5–10 years. However, in the last few years, as seen in the US, an increase in LAS is also noted in our centre, with more sicker patients (LAS > 40) being listed for LTx [19].No serious side effects were noted during antifibrotic therapy. However, significant weight loss occurred, which is most likely due to drug-induced anorexia or possibly due to respiratory cachexia in end-stage lung disease. Post-operatively, no problems with bleeding or thoracic wound healing were observed. One patient, treated with nintedanib; and three patients who had received pirfenidone developed, mostly mild and uneventful, anastomic airway complications. Intervention for anastomotic stenosis was needed for one case, which only occurred late-onset after prior fungal infection. Overall, it is unlikely that any of these anastomotic problems were directly related to prior antifibrotic treatment given the time of onset/clinical context of anastomotic complications, comparable anastomotic problems in the historical controls; and rather short half-life of both drugs (for pirfenidone 3 h, for nintedanib 9.5 h) [20, 21]. The short half-life of both antifibrotic drugs is important, as drug-interactions with calcineurin inhibitors, by altered hepatic (CYP3A4) metabolisation leading to changes in tacrolimus/cyclosporine trough levels, are a feared iatrogenic adverse event in LTx. However, hepatic metabolism of pirfenidone primarily occurs through the CYP1A2 enzyme; whereas nintedanib is mainly a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and only weakly interferes with CYP3A4. This probably also explains why no major side effects due to drug-interactions with peri-operatively used drugs were noted in our cohort. Finally, long-term outcomes regarding pulmonary function and overall survival were overall good in our current case series, suggesting that antifibrotic agents can probably be safely given without deleterious effects on peri-operative or medium-term outcomes.Possible limitations of the current study, of course, are its retrospective design, the small number of included patients; and historical controls as comparator for some outcomes, which of course limits interpretations regarding antifibrotic drug efficacy and safety. Also, disease severity ranged from mild to severe IPF, which may bias the observed effects of pretransplant antifibrotic therapy; and post-transplant evolution, including pulmonary function, may be biased by inclusion of some patients in various randomized clinical trials. Larger, preferably prospective, case-series are therefore undeniably needed to confirm our findings, especially for nintedanib additional safety data are needed before firmer conclusions can be made regarding its safety. ConclusionIn summary, we conclude that antifibrotic drugs are probably safe in IPF patients undergoing LTx. By attenuating disease progression while awaiting LTx, these antifibrotics may perhaps further help to reduce the number of IPF patients dying on the waiting list. Abbreviations 6MWT:  Six minute walking test BMI:  Body mass index CLAD:  Chronic lung allograft dysfunction CPR:  Cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation DLCO:  Diffusion capacity FDA:  Food and Drug Administration FGF:  Fibroblast growth factor FVC:  Forced vital capacity ILD:  Interstitial lung disease IPF:  Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis LAS:  Lung allocation score LTx:  Lung transplantation MDS:  Macroscopic Diameter Sutures (MDS Classification) PDGF:  Platelet-derived growth factor PGD:  Primary graft dysfunction POD:  Post-operative day TGF- β:  Transforming growth factor –beta TLC:  Total lung capacity UIP:  Usual interstitial pneumonia VEGF:  Vascular endothelial growth factor Declarations AcknowledgmentsNot applicable. Funding RV is supported by the Starting Grant (STG/15/023) and JY is supported by the Clinical Research Fund (KOF), UZLeuven, Belgium. WW and RV are senior research fellows of the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO), Belgium (12G8715N). GMV is supported by the FWO (G.0723.10, G.0679.12 and G.0679.12). Availability of data and materials The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to local Biobanking and legislation policy, but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. The authors confirm that that the work described has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright holder. Authors’ contributions ID: performed data collection, wrote the paper and helped with its critical appraisal. WW: is responsible ILD physician during pretransplant period and helped with critical appraisal of the manuscript. JY: is responsible ILD physician during pretransplant period and helped with critical appraisal of the manuscript. EV: is responsible ILD pathologist during pretransplant period and helped with critical appraisal of the manuscript. GV: is responsible ILD physician during pretransplant period and responsible LTx physician during post-LTx period, helped with critical appraisal of the manuscript. RV: is responsible LTx physician during post-LTx period, performed design of the study, data collection, statistical analyses, and helped with critical appraisal of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Consent for publication All patients gave informed consent for scientific publication of the data presented in this paper. Ethics approval and consent to participate The current study was approved by the Leuven University Hospital Ethical Review Board (S51577) and patients gave informed consent. Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Authors’ Affiliations(1)Department of Respiratory Diseases, Interstitial Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Unit, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium(2)KULeuven, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Lung Transplantation Unit, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium(3)KULeuven, Department of Histopathology, Leuven, Belgium ReferencesRaghu G, Collard HR, Egan JJ, Martinez FJ, Behr J, Brown KK, et al. ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Committee on Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT statement: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(6):788–824.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ScholarNational Clinical Guideline Centre (UK). Diagnosis and management of suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: clinical guidelines. 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Eur Respir J. 2015;45(5):1434–45.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle ScholarYserbyt J, Dooms C, Vos R, Dupont LJ, Van Raemdonck DE, Verleden GM. Anastomotic airway complications after lung transplantation: risk factors, treatment modalities and outcome-a single-centre experience. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016;49(1):e1–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ScholarPaone G, Sebastiani A, Ialleni E, Diso D, Rose D, Quagliarini F, et al. A combined therapeutic approach in progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-pirfenidone as bridge therapy for ex vivo lung transplantation: a case report. Transplant Proc. 2015;47(3):855–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ScholarRiddell P, Minnis P, Ging P, Egan JJ. Pirfenidone as a bridge to lung transplantation in patients with progressive IPF. Thorax. 2014;69:A183.View ArticleGoogle ScholarMortensen A, Cherrier L, Walia R. Lung transplantation on pirfenidone: a single center experience. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016;35(4S):883.Google ScholarTaniguchi H, Kondoh Y, Ebina M, Azuma A, Ogura T, Taguchi Y, Pirfenidone Clinical Study Group in Japan, et al. The clinical significance of 5% change in vital capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: extended analysis of the pirfenidone trial. Respir Res. 2011;12:93.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle ScholarNathan SD, du Bois RM, Albera C, Bradford WZ, Costabel U, Kartashov A, et al. Validation of test performance characteristics and minimal clinically important difference of the 6-min walk test in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Respir Med. 2015;109(7):914–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ScholarCastleberry AW, Englum BR, Snyder LD, Worni M, Osho AA, Gulack BC, et al. The utility of preoperative six-minute-walk distance in lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192(7):843–52.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ScholarEgan TM, Murray S, Bustami RT, Shearon TH, McCullough KP, Edwards LB, et al. Development of the new lung allocation system in the United States. Am J Transplant. 2006;6(5 Pt 2):1212–27.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ScholarEgan TM, Edwards LB. Effect of the lung allocation score on lung transplantation in the United States. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016;35(4):433–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ScholarESBRIET® (pirfenidone) hard capsules, for oral use. electronic Medicines Compendium. Genentech. Accessed 12 Dec 2015.Google ScholarOFEV® (nintedanib) capsules, for oral use. electronic Medicines Compendium. Boehringer Ingelheim. Accessed 12 Dec 2015.Google ScholarCopyright© The Author(s). 2016 Download PDF Export citations Papers, Zotero, Reference Manager, RefWorks (.RIS) Download Citations Download References Download Both EndNote (.ENW) Download Citations Download References Download Both Mendeley, JabRef (.BIB) Download Citations Download References Download Both Section Infectious, Rare and Idiopathic Pulmonary Diseases Metrics Article accesses: 1765 Citations: 14 more information Altmetric Attention Score: 32 Share this article Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus
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  • 搜尋結果The University of Tokyowww.u-tokyo.ac.jp/en/頁庫存檔翻譯這個網頁TopicsOctober 24, 2017 GLP-GEfIL Program Celebrates Its First Graduates. Vote Now in the University of Tokyo Slogan Competition. NoticesOctober 23, 2017 ...Graduate SchoolsThe University of Tokyo has 15 Graduate Schools that offer ...About UTokyoHome > About UTokyo ... To learn more about the University of ...FacultiesFaculty of Engineering - Faculty of Science - Faculty of MedicineProspective StudentsHome > Prospective Students ... Students from all over the ...AcademicsFaculties - Graduate Schools - Student Exchange ProgramsUndergraduate Programs in ...Programs in English at Komaba ... Course (GSC ...u-tokyo.ac.jp 的其他相關資訊 »「The university of tokyo」的圖片搜尋結果更多符合「The university of tokyo」的圖片檢舉圖片感謝您的意見。 檢舉其他相片請檢舉令人反感的圖片。 取消完成if (document.querySelector("#taw").clientHeight == 0 && document.querySelector("#topstuff").clientHeight == 0){var positiveClientHeight = function(element){return element.clientHeight>0;};var firstVisibleElement = Array.from(document.querySelector("#rso").children) .find(positiveClientHeight);var sectionWithHeaderElement = firstVisibleElement && firstVisibleElement .querySelector("div g-section-with-header");if(sectionWithHeaderElement){sectionWithHeaderElement.style.marginTop = "0";} } 东京大学| The University of Tokyowww.u-tokyo.ac.jp/zh/頁庫存檔類似內容轉為繁體網頁东京大学的官方网站。您可以了解到大学的介绍、本科学部和研究生院等的介绍,研究活动、国际活动、招生信息以及其他东京大学的信息。University of Tokyo - Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Tokyo頁庫存檔類似內容翻譯這個網頁The University of Tokyo (東京大学, Tōkyō daigaku), abbreviated as Todai (東大, Tōdai) or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, often ...‎History · ‎Academics · ‎Rankings and reputation · ‎CampusUniversity of Tokyo World University Rankings | THEhttps://www.timeshighereducation.com/...university.../university-tokyo頁庫存檔翻譯這個網頁Find the latest world ranking position for University of Tokyo and key information for prospective students here today.The University of Tokyo | Top Universitieshttps://www.topuniversities.com/universities/university-tokyo頁庫存檔翻譯這個網頁Established in 1877, the University of Tokyo was ranked the 34th best university in the world in the QS World University Rankings® 2016-2017. Home to 10 ...The University of Tokyo | Courserahttps://zh-tw.coursera.org/utokyo頁庫存檔類似內容翻譯這個網頁The University of Tokyo was established in 1877 as the first national university in Japan. As a leading research university, UTokyo offers courses in essentially ....mfr{margin-top:1em;margin-bottom:1em}#brs{}#brs{margin-bottom:28px}#brs .med{color:#222;height:auto;padding-bottom:8px}.brs_col{font-size:14px;margin-top:-1px;padding-bottom:1px;display:inline-block;line-height:20px;vertical-align:top;max-width:100%;box-sizing:border-box}#brs ._e4b{margin:0;clear:both}#brs a{padding:3px 32px 3px 0;display:inline-block;float:left}#brs a{text-decoration:none}g-section-with-header{display:block;margin:40px 0}._ojo{padding:0 0px 12px 0px}The university of tokyo的相關搜尋university of tokyo rankinguniversity of tokyo addressuniversity of tokyo physicstokyo university mbauniversity of tokyo international programuniversity of kyototokyo university computer sciencetokyo university hospitaltoyo universityjapan university rankingif (document.querySelector("#taw").clientHeight == 0 && document.querySelector("#topstuff").clientHeight == 0){var positiveClientHeight = function(element){return 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2 annotations