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Mica Ang
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  • Made up of rules which are practiced by all, it receives from this uniform practice and obedience an authority almost super-human, which puts it beyond discussion.
  • We cannot live together without making mutual sacrifices, without tying ourselves to one another with strong and lasting bonds.  Every
  • .  Every society is a moral society.  In a way, this is even more rather than less true in organized societies.  Because the individual is not sufficient unto herself, it is from society that she receives what she needs, and it is for society that she works.  Thus, is formed a strong attachment to the society to which she belongs. She comes accustomed to regarding herself as party of a whole.  On the other side of the equation, society begins to regards its members not as things to control but as cooperators whom it cannot neglect and whom it owes duties. It is thus not only societies that share a collective conscience that are moral.  In reality, cooperation also has its intrinsic morality.
  • (2) the collective character of these sentiments explains the social character of the reaction (why it is useful for it to be social)
  • The rule that orders us to be like each other (to follow the collective conscience) aims to assure social solidarity (integration and cohesion), but so to does the rule that orders us to specialize. Both are moral rules. Morality is but the totality of conditions of social solidarity.
  • As the social environment extends, the collective conscience must also extend and thus becomes increasingly abstract (e.g., transcendence of the idea of God; more rational law). This abstract indeterminacy leaves a larger space for individual variation
  • The growth of volume and density mechanically determines the progress of the division of labor by intensifying the struggle for existence
  • Social harmony depends upon cooperation and the division of labor in industrial societies; Contractual relations may grow but this does not mean, as Spencer suggests, that contractual exchange can be the only existing link between people
  • the division of labor is the principal source of the cohesion of later civilizations
  • t seemed to us that what resolves this apparent contradiction is a transformation of social solidarity as a result of the constant development of an increasing division of labor. 
  • The rules sanctioned by penal law express the most essential social similarities; in consequence, they correspond to the social solidarity which comes from resemblance and varies with it.
  • common morality is quite extensive (that is to say, public opinion is quite strong in many areas). 
  • The similarities of consciences produces a legal system and set of rules which imposes uniform beliefs and practices through the threat of repressive measures. The division of labor produces a legal system and set of rules which determine the nature and the social relations of divided functions, violation of which brings in only restitutive measures.
  • Social life comes from a double source, the similarity of consciences and the division of social labor. The individual is socialized in the first case because, without having her own individuality, she becomes part of the same collective group as that she resembles.  The individual is socialized in the second case because, while having a separate personality and specific personal activity which distinguishes her from others, she depends on them to the same extent she differs from them.
  • all law has a repressive character (examples of Hebrew law, Hindu Law, the development of cooperative law in Rome). Today, the primitive relationship is reversed.  Note that this has nothing to do with a low state of morals in primitive societies (all societies are equally moral)
  • Thus, we find in conclusion two kinds of positive solidarity: one which comes from similarity (mechanical solidarity) and the other which comes from the division of labor (organic solidarity). The first varies in inverse ratio and the second in direct ratio with individualized personalities
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