My Web Markups - Kimberly Onza
. They are all imaginary in the sense that they only exist in the minds of humans
(4) Does infinity exist as a real number in mathematics? Or is just an imaginary concept? - Quora
If absence of Value can be considered as a number, so should the maximum value be representative of number.
(4) Can infinity be called an imaginary number? - Quora
Yes, Infinity exists. How will you define it?? Consider this situation- Suppose you go out in space and look straight in front and are able to see back of your head, its infinity. But for this you must have eyesight strong enough to look into infinity. Practically impossible. Hence infinity is a imaginary quantity used to express something which is so huge that human brain is unable to quantify
(4) Does infinity exist? - Quora
For example if you never heard of a circle but have seen its example in nature does it mean you discovered it or does it simply mean you have just succeeded in giving it a name and representation to refer back in the future?
(4) Will we ever understand if math is an invention or a discovery? - Quora
Discover: the equations and the relations already exist in the universe, the number pi is out there we are just discovering what the number is. Invent: Sure the number exists but it is not defined until we invent them, for example pi is defined as the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its radius. Without defining it, pi is just a number
Pre-existing facts can't be invented they can only be discovered. You can't invent something that already exists, and pi is a number which is present on number line. It existed even before life came to Earth…… So you can easily say no one invented pi, but it was discovered by someone.
(4) Was Pi discovered or invented? - Quora
Numbers are thought of as abstract concepts not only by logicians and mathematicians interested in formal foundations of logical thought
Number concepts: abstract and embodied | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Numbers should be distinguished from numerals, the symbols used to represent numbers.
Number - Wikipedia
Numbers are this really simple invention. These words that reify concepts are a cognitive tool.
There are obviously patterns in nature. Once we invent numbers, they allow us access to these patterns in nature that we wouldn’t have otherwise. We can see that the circumference and diameter of a circle have a consistent ratio across circles, but it’s next to impossible to realize that without numbers. There are lots of patterns in nature, like pi, that are actually there. These things are there regardless of whether or not we can consistently discriminate them. When we have numbers we can consistently discriminate them, and that allows us to find fascinating and useful patterns of nature that we would never be able to pick up on otherwise, without precision.
Confronting languages that don’t have numbers or many numbers leads you inevitably down this track of questioning what your world would be like without numbers, and appreciating that numbers are a human invention and they’re not something we get automatically from nature.
“Mathematical concepts are not wired into the human condition. They are learned, acquired through cultural and linguistic transmission. And if they are learned rather than inherited genetically, then it follows that they are not a component of the human mental hardware but are very much a part of our mental software—the feature of an app we ourselves have developed.
How Humans Invented Numbers—And How Numbers Reshaped Our World | Innovation | Smithsonian Magazine
It is interesting that associated with a numeral symbol or a language symbol there is a meaning that is not contained in the symbol, The symbol is merely a reminder of information which is in the human mind and not in the symbol itself and yet one manages to communicate only if one learns the code in question and associated with the numerical and language symbol.
(4) Do numbers exist, or are they inventions of the human mind? - Quora
numbers were discovered and number systems were invented!
(4) Did numbers exist before we invented them? - Quora
A deductive argument is sound if and only if it is both valid, and all of its premises are actually true
Validity and Soundness | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Working in the healthcare industry allows you to nurture your desire to help others while earning a living—talk about a win-win. Indeed, there are few professions where you can touch the lives of others—and make a difference in them—the way you can in the healthcare industry.
Reasons to Work in the Healthcare Field
Therefore, the total number of possible ways in which a standard army-issue Enigma machine could be set up was: which is approximately 158 million million million.
And to this day they rely on mathematicians for their problem solving abilities and logical thinking: GCHQ boasts the highest concentration of pure mathematicians in the country.
The Germans believed the strength of the Enigma lay in the fact that it was impossible to work out the key from the billions and billions of potential keys every single day. As long as the Allies did not get hold of the key sheet, their communications would remain secure.
To make it as difficult as possible for the Allies to decipher messages, the Germans would change the key every day, resetting their Enigma machines at midnight every night.
Just as with any other type of cipher, as long as the recipient knows the key, the process of deciphering an Enigma encrypted message is incredibly simple
The battle of wits was never keener than during the Second World War, when the Germans used the famous Enigma machine - which they believed uncrackable - to encode messages, and the Allies worked at Bletchley Park to decipher the code.
Exploring the Enigma | plus.maths.org
"Can machines think?"
Alan Turing: The experiment that shaped artificial intelligence - BBC News
Algae are easily cultured in the laboratory and sampling is easy, inexpensive and creates minimal impact on resident biota; relatively standard methods exist for the evaluation of functional and non-taxonomic structural characteristics of algal communities
s primary producers, algae are most directly affected by physical and chemical factors. Algal assemblages are sensitive to some pollutants and they readily accumulate pollutants, and algal metabolism is also sensitive to the variation of environmental and natural disturbances
Algal assemblages are typically species rich, and algal species exhibit wider distributions among ecosystems and geographical regions
Algae are ideally suited for water quality assessment because they have rapid reproduction rates and very short life cycles, making them valuable indicators of short-term impacts
Biological monitoring is the specific application of biological response for the evaluation of environmental change for the purpose of using this information in quality control program. In an effort to characterise more precisely the cumulative impact of human activities on ecosystems, it is important to shift environmental monitoring from sole reliance on chemical indicators towards the increased use of biological conditions
biological indicators as organisms (or populations) whose occurrence reflects the environmental conditions
Perspectives on the Use of Algae as Biological Indicators for Monitoring and Protecting Aquatic Environments, with Special Reference to Malaysian Freshwater Ecosystems
Water leaving the extensor cells leads to decreased turgor pressure, causing the cells to become flaccid and bend.
The stimulus (touch) leads to potassium (K+) ions and chlorine (Cl-) ions exiting the cells. Reduced concentrations of ions from the inside of the cells and the subsequent increase to the outside create a chemical gradient, leading to water molecules leaving the cell through osmosis.
These are called nastic movements – movements that occur in response to a stimulus. If the stimulus is a touch or contact stimulus such as the wind, they are called seismonastic movements or thigmonasty. If the stimulus is heat, they are called thermonastic movements. If they are light reactions, the movements are photonastic, while day and night-based movements are called nyctinastic movements.
Mimosa Pudica: Why Do Touch Me Not (Sensitive Plant) Leaves Close?
First step in the G protein mediated signaling cascade is binding of an agonist/ligand to GPCRs, so these molecules form an important part of this pathway. GPCRs are members of a large family of proteins found in eukaryotes and certain prokaryotes
This leads to the dissociation of Gβ/Gγ dimer from Gα. Both these moieties then become free to act upon their downstream effectors and thereby initiate unique intracellular signaling responses. After the signal propagation, the GTP of Gα-GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP and Gα becomes inactive (Gα-GDP), which leads to its re-association with the Gβ/Gγ dimer to form the inactive heterotrimeric complex.
Upon activation by a ligand, the GPCR undergoes a conformational change and then activate the G proteins by promoting the exchange of GDP/GTP associated with the Gα subunit.
Signaling through G protein coupled receptors
In the case of an outbreak, both diseases may generally entail substantial economic consequences for the affected country or region, particularly in western European countries with a considerable pig industry
Yet, despite the similar clinical signs and some shared pathogenic characteristics, the two diseases are caused by completely different viruses
African and classical swine fever: similarities, differences and epidemiological consequences
Algae are an attractive platform for producing subunit vaccines because they are relatively inexpensive to grow, genetically tractable, easily scaled to large volumes, have a short generation time, and are devoid of inflammatory, viral, or prion contaminants often present in other systems
Algae-Produced Pfs25 Elicits Antibodies That Inhibit Malaria Transmission
The growth rate of microalgae is 5–10 times faster than conventional food crops
Microalgae - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
CDC uses a One Health approach by involving experts in human, animal, environmental health, and other relevant disciplines and sectors in monitoring and controlling public health threats and to learn about how diseases spread among people, animals, plants, and the environment.
One Health Basics | One Health | CDC
Oral vaccines also obviate the need for trained medical personnel to administer them and reduce the risks of infection associated with needles. They also have higher compliance from patients, owing to the lack of fear and resistance associated with injections. Both of these latter aspects are important considerations for successful vaccination campaign coverage in remote or resource-limited settings.
Perhaps the most significant benefit of oral vaccination is the ability to elicit both mucosal and systemic immunity.
Many developing world diseases do not yet have vaccines, in part because traditional vaccine production costs present a significant investment hurdle, considering the financial capacity of the intended consumers. Both cost and ease of administration are challenges that must be tackled to address this undue burden on global health and productivity.
Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.
Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels.
Frontiers | Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines | Microbiology
dditionally, these compounds are soluble in water, easily extractable via an aqueous extraction technique, and easily modifiable while extraction of plant-based compounds requires harmful organic compounds
However, when comparing to plant-based compounds which also exhibit anti SARS-CoV-2 activity, production cost of algal sulfated polysaccharides is cheaper, owing to their abundant amount in the marine habitat
This could prove to be a challenge as further research and development of algae might be unfavorable due to its costly expenses in harvesting
Challenges and future perspectives
Berndt et al. [31Berndt A, Smalley T, Ren B, et al. Recombinant production of a functional SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. bioRxiv; 2021. [Google Scholar]] listed the challenges of non-animal cell production systems for the production of useful virus spike proteins, including bacterial system, which showed poor protein folding, fungal system which had low productivity as well as plant-based systems which had low biomass productivity. However, algae can be scaled up very rapidly, grown photosynthetically or heterotrophically, and demonstrated to fold complicated eukaryotic proteins, to be genetically modified, and to express recombinant proteins [31Berndt A, Smalley T, Ren B, et al. Recombinant production of a functional SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. bioRxiv; 2021. [Google Scholar]]. Gene editing technologies have proven its great potential in current advancements as genetic modification ventures into microalgal strains to improve productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application [36Spicer A, Molnar A. Gene editing of Microalgae: scientific progress and regulatory challenges in Europe. Biology (Basel). 2018;7. [PubMed], [Google Scholar],37Fayyaz M, Chew KW, Show PL, et al. Genetic engineering of microalgae for enhanced biorefinery capabilities. Biotechnol Adv. 2020;43:107554. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]].
here have been several biopharmaceuticals produced in algae via genetic modification. These include vaccines, some of which have been evaluated at the preclinical trial level such as vaccines against peanut allergies, malaria, and Human papillomavirus [9Rosales-Mendoza S, García-Silva I, González-Ortega O, et al. The potential of algal biotechnology to produce antiviral compounds and biopharmaceuticals. Molecules. 2020;25(18):4049. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]].
lgal nutraceuticals with their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immunostimulatory, and immunomodulatory properties are also important for boosting immunity, preventing diseases and treating disorders associated with the severe SARS-CoV-2 infections, such as anti-inflammatory treatment and tissue repair
Algae and cyanobacteria with a chemo-diversity can be identified as a relevant origin for the development of antiviral therapy since they possess both virus suppressing properties and immunity improving capacity
For instance, antiviral efficacy of algal polysaccharides including carrageenan, fucoidan, ulvan, agar, and alginates have been investigated against various viruses such as dengue virus (DENV) and HIV, besides being natural polymers which are low cost, biodegradable, non-toxic, and biocompatible
In fact, algae and cyanobacteria can be referred to as one of the richest manufacturers of bioactive metabolites which are pharmacologically active and exhibit antiviral propertie
This makes the cultivation of microalgae a sustainable and green approach, being incredible cellular factories for the production of compounds with high value [11Siddiqui A, Wei Z, Boehm M, et al. Engineering microalgae through chloroplast transformation to produce high-value industrial products. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2020;67(1):30–40. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Since microalgal metabolism changes its intracellular environment in response to the changes in the external environment, biosynthesis of specific compound can be stimulated by manipulating the metabolic pathways including culture conditions to improve photosynthetic growth [12De Morais MG, Vaz BDS, De Morais EG, et al. Biologically active metabolites synthesized by microalgae. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:1–15. [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],13Gimpel JA, Henríquez V, Mayfield SP. In metabolic engineering of eukaryotic microalgae: potential and challenges come with great diversity. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:1376. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Their special metabolic patterns are closely linked to these unique features of the environments which produce an extraordinary of active secondary metabolites that are often unique and different from those identified in terrestrial organisms [14Lauritano C, Ferrante MI, Rogato A. Marine natural products from microalgae: an -omics overview. Mar Drugs. 2019;17(5):269. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Therefore, there is a large prospect in the exploitation of microalgae for further development into pharmaceutical products, allowing them to produce products that are valuable commercially such as proteins, polysaccharides, phycobiliproteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and carotenoids, either sourced directly from primary metabolism or synthesized from secondary metabolism [15Tang DYY, Khoo KS, Chew KW, et al. Potential utilization of bioproducts from microalgae for the quality enhancement of natural products. Bioresour Technol. 2020;304:122997. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],16Tang DYY, Yew GY, Koyande AK, et al. Green technology for the industrial production of biofuels and bioproducts from microalgae: a review. Environ Chem Lett. 2020;18(6):1967–1985. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]].
Algae cultures in general are also more advantageous in the biopharmaceutical production as there is not much of a need to compete for agricultural land that is increasing in scarcity
However, the use of microalgae may be favored over plants as a result of their lower production costs, high scalability, and increased biomass culture with simple mineral requirements
A more conventional method of forming these products includes the usage of plants as they can be used to produce bioactive metabolites and biopharmaceuticals
The possible utilization of algae in producing value-added products such as serological test kits, vaccines, and supplements that would either mitigate or hinder the continued health risks caused by the virus is prominent
In this review, the potential of algae in combating the spread of COVID-19 is investigated since algal compounds have been tested against viruses and algal anti-inflammatory compounds have the potential to treat the severe symptoms of COVID-19.
Full article: Can algae contribute to the war with Covid-19?
reen microalgae have attracted considerable attention recently as a biomanufacturing platform for the production of recombinant proteins for a number of reasons. These photosynthetic eukaryotic microorganisms are safe, scalable, easy to genetically modify through transformation, mutagenesis, or breeding, and inexpensive to grow. Many microalgae species are genetically transformable,
Photosynthetic biomanufacturing in green algae; production of recombinant proteins for industrial, nutritional, and medical uses | SpringerLink
Many factors can contribute to diseases in your flock. By being aware of their causes and how they spread, you can put practices into place to reduce the risk of disease occurring.Disease can often lead to reduced performance in areas such as breeding, growth rate, feed conversion and egg production. Disease can also affect appearance in show birds and racing ability in pigeon flocks
Poultry diseases and their causes | Business Queensland
Existing Regulatory Framework
On the animal side, measures include the application of curative treatments and preventive interventions, such as vaccination and enhanced biosecurity, but also in the costs related to setting up surveillance systems (FAO 2016), and limiting disease transmission, such as market interventions (Peiris et al. 2016), animal movement controls (Fèvre et al. 2006), and mass culling. So
The median annual cost of FMD due only to tangible production losses in affected livestock has been estimated at $US7.6 billion worldwide
Infectious Diseases and Meat Production | SpringerLink
According to the necessity to compose the force-producing machinery and recycle it at a later stage, the cell movement is commonly seen as consisting of two phases: protrusion of the cell leading edge driven by a concerted self-assembly of the actin filament network at the cell front and the adhesions underneath, and retraction of the cell rear requiring disassembly and removal of the two systems from the back part of the cell.
Crawling cell locomotion revisited | PNAS
Cells crawl for all sorts of reasons: to form new tissue during embryonic development; to heal wounds; to defend against invading microorganisms; to remodel bone; to regenerate nerves; and more. A cell’s movement is driven by continuous remodeling of the cytoskeleton and is mediated by the lamellipodia (tiny filaments composed of a protein called actin) located at the lamella (front edge of the cell). When actin subunits are added to the lamellipodia in a process known as polymerization, a pushing force is generated. After the polymerization has occurred, the molecular motor, myosin II, is added to cause a contractile force. As the actin filament cytoskeleton pushes and contracts, the cell slowly crawls along.
How Cells Crawl | NIH Intramural Research Program
In contrast, neurons in many regions, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and spinal cord, are guided to their final destinations by crawling along a particular type of glial cell, called radial glia, which acts as a cellular guide
Neural crest cells are largely guided along distinct migratory pathways by specialized adhesion molecules in the extracellular matrix or by molecules on the surfaces of cells in the embryonic periphery (see Figure 22.2)
Neuronal Migration - Neuroscience - NCBI Bookshelf
As osteoblast precursors derive either from circulation or resident stem cell pools, they and their progeny are required to migrate within the three-dimensional bone space and to navigate to their destination, i.e. to the site of bone formation
Osteoblast migration in vertebrate bone
During vascular development, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates pericyte migration or migration of other smooth muscle precursors, which is necessary for correct vessel wall formation.
Smooth muscle cell migration occurs during vascular development, in response to vascular injury, and during atherogenesis. During atherogenesis, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells migrate to populate the intima, either from the media1 or from the circulation via migration of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, giving rise to smooth muscle progenitor cells
Smooth muscle cell migration occurs during vascular development, in response to vascular injury, and during atherogenesis.
Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration | Circulation Research
The gut-brain connection makes it possible for emotional experiences to register as gastrointestinal distress. When you feel anxious, fearful, or certain that something’s wrong, you might experience stomach twinges, pain, or nausea. That’s where the name “gut feeling” comes from.
Trust Your Gut: What It Actually Means
An imbalance in the microbial community structure—referred to as dysbiosis—is a common accomplice of age-related disorders that collectively represent the leading cause of disability and mortality worldwide . To cope with a constant changing environment, the gut microbiome responds in a dynamic manner both through changes in bacterial species composition and metabolic function. This process is tightly regulated by the host-immune system that figures as an architect to shape the gut microbiome by allowing commensal bacteria to thrive and occupy mucosal niches while selectively eliminating or neutralizing harmful microbes. As immune fitness progressively declines with age, surveillance of this dynamic host–microbial handshake is impaired resulting in wide-ranging functional consequences for host health and immunity (Fig. 1).
The aging gut microbiome and its impact on host immunity | Genes & Immunity
“Any death due to preventable diseases is unacceptable
Philippine Digestive Health Week: Filipinos urged to care for their digestive health | Department of Health website
DNA methylation seems to serve as a template for rebuilding histone modification patterns following DNA replication.
Histone methylation can help to direct DNA methylation patterns
Linking DNA methylation and histone modification: patterns and paradigms | Nature Reviews Genetics
Methylation-sensitive Southern blot
DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors and the Development of Epigenetic Cancer Therapies | JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Oxford Academic
including "go out and vote" election campaigns
Choosing a Special Ad Category | Facebook Business Help Center
Integrins bind to a wide variety of ligands in the extracellular matrix, on the surface of other cells and also soluble proteins.
Integrins are large heterodimers consisting of α- and β-chains that together form the intact receptor in the plasma membrane.
IgSF is one of the largest and most diverse protein families
repeat sequences which are stabilized by calcium ions
Cadherins are associated with cell-cell adhesive bonds in solid tissues
Proper functionality of selectins is carbohydrate-dependent
Selectins are especially important for leukocyte trafficking, migration of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph nodes and to the skin.
However, immune cell integrins also bind to soluble ligands and ligands on other cells. The cell-cell adhesion mediating molecules can further be divided by their ligands as selectins bind carbohydrates in a calcium dependent manner (11), cadherins mediate preferably homophilic bonds in a calcium-dependent manner (12) and the IgSF subfamily nectins mediate homophilic and heterophilic bonds
Integrins typically bind to the extracellular matrix, while selectins, cadherins, and IgSF members are associated with cell-cell adhesion
cell adhesion molecules also bind to different ligands.
members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF)
Frontiers | Cell Adhesion Molecules and Their Roles and Regulation in the Immune and Tumor Microenvironment | Immunology
bind to various integrin molecules on leukocytes.
They are expressed on vascular endothelial cells
heterodimers consisting of an α and a β chain
adhesion of leucocytes with other cells.
Integrins are expressed on leukocytes and they help in leukocyte adherence to vascular endothelium.
initial stickiness of leukocytes to vascular endothelial cells
CAMs of selectin family are glycoproteins and they bind to specific carbohydrate groups.
Classification of Cell-Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) into Different Families | Immunology
Cell-cell adhesion involving cadherins and selectins depends on Ca2+ ions, whereas interactions involving integrin and Ig-superfamily CAMs do not
A number of cell-surface proteins (the CAMs), mediate such homophilic (like-binds-like) adhesion between cells of a single type and heterophilic adhesion between cells of different types
Cell-Cell Adhesion and Communication - Molecular Cell Biology - NCBI Bookshelf
Sequences involved in Ca2+ binding between the ECDs are necessary for cell adhesion
The classic cadherins (E-, N- and P-) are concentrated at the intermediate cell junctions, which link to the actin filament network through specific linking proteins called catenins.[
This family is involved in both homophilic or heterophilic binding and has the ability to bind integrins or different IgSF CAMs
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function.
Cell adhesion molecule - Wikipedia
We hypothesize that overrepresented motifs correspond to TFs that are more likely to bind to bidirectional promoters than to unidirectional promoters, so much so that their binding-site abundance in bidirectional promoters exceeds expectation (sum of sites in two unidirectional promoters). In contrast, underrepresented motifs correspond to TFs that preferentially regulate unidirectional promoters. TFs of shared motifs show no preference, possibly corresponding to potent regulators, as they do not require augmentation to the number of binding sites for effective usage in bidirectional promoters, assuming multiple sites lead to a higher likelihood of binding.
he number of binding sites in bidirectional promoters is smaller than the number of sites in a single unidirectional promoter.
The number of binding sites is larger in bidirectional promoters than is the number of sites in a single unidirectional promoter, but smaller than the sum of sites in two unidirectional promoters.
The number of binding sites in bidirectional promoters is larger on average than the sum of sites in two unidirectional promoters
Detailed analysis reveal that the dominant mode of transcription in bidirectional promoters is to activate both downstream genes, and that this can be achieved with as little as a single TF binding site.
we found evidence for overrepresentation for the binding of certain TFs and modified histones.
Because bidirectional promoters have the ability to activate two downstream genes concurrently, one of our goals was to determine whether there are sequence signatures that distinguish this mode of regulation from that of unidirectional promoters.
They also display a mirror sequence composition, such that Gs and Ts dominate on one side of the midpoint, while Cs and As dominate on the other side (Engstrom et al. 2006). How these general features influence the binding of transcription factors (TFs) to bidirectional promoters is unknown.
. For example, most bidirectional promoters lack TATA boxes and are both GC-rich and enriched in CpG islands (Adachi and Lieber 2002; Takai and Jones 2004; Trinklein et al. 2004)
We define a bidirectional promoter as an intergenic region that is <1 kb long, and flanked by the transcription start site (TSS) of a plus-strand gene on one side and the TSS of a minus-strand gene on the other.
Signatures of active transcription, such as occupancy of RNA polymerase II and the modified histones H3K4me2, H3K4me3, and H3ac, are overrepresented in regions around bidirectional promoters, suggesting that a higher fraction of divergent genes are transcribed in a given cell than the fraction of other genes.
We categorized the presence of DNA sequence motifs, binding of transcription factors, and modified histones as overrepresented, shared, or underrepresented in bidirectional promoters with respect to unidirectional promoters.
Transcription factor binding and modified histones in human bidirectional promoters
What are the signs of gut health problems?
Why should we pay attention to our gut health?
What is 'gut health' and why is it important?
Each year, more than 270,000 Americans develop a cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, including cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum. About half of these cancers result in death.
11 Surprising Facts About the Digestive System | Live Science
Simply put, your digestive system is a complex collection of organs that work together to convert food you eat into energy and nutrients your body can use. But it’s not just about what goes in your body and what comes out. Your digestive system affects every aspect of your health, from your emotional well-being to the strength of your immune system.
Peristalsis causes the GI tract to contract and relax—movement that can look like an ocean wave crashing and receding through your digestive system.
Digestive System Facts | Fascinating Facts About Your Digestive System
The force that propels food and drink through the esophagus is called peristalsis.
Journey Through the Digestive Tract - Ask The Scientists
We subdivided the fused lacZ mRNA sequence into five regions: 5' UTR, TIR, coding region, junction between coding region and 3' UTR, and 3' UTR (Fig. 2).
Effects of different target sites on antisense RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression
heal your gut and optimize your brain
Brain Maker: The Power of Gut Microbes to Heal and Protect Your Brain–for Life | David Perlmutter, Kristin Loberg (Contributor) | download
The main focus of anti-angiogenic strategies to date has been on the blockade of pro-angiogenic growth factors, the most important of which are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins.
Anti-angiogenic alternatives to VEGF blockade | SpringerLink
The integrin family is an extensive group of cellular receptors, generated by the association of one of the 18α subunits with one of the 8β subunits generating 24 unique heterodimers, involved in attachment and migration of cells to the surrounding ECM.
Anti-angiogenic peptides for cancer therapeutics
VEGF pathway have been used in the clinic
Analysis of VEGF-A Regulated Gene Expression in Endothelial Cells to Identify Genes Linked to Angiogenesis
Gene silencing is considered a gene knockdown mechanism since the methods used to silence genes, such as RNAi, CRISPR, or siRNA, generally reduce the expression of a gene by at least 70% but do not completely eliminate it.
Gene silencing - Wikipedia
Quantitative RT-PCR was used to confirm the differences in gene expression between the wild-type and Meg3-null embryos identified by microarray analysi
Increased Expression of Angiogenic Genes in the Brains of Mouse Meg3-Null Embryos | Endocrinology | Oxford Academic
Guts have been called a ‘second brain’ because if the nerve between brain and gut (the vagus nerve) were cut, the gut would function independently. The gut produces more neurotransmitters – which affect mood and behaviour – than the brain does.
Fascinating Facts About Your Gut | Benenden Health
but there’s definitely a connection between poor sleep and the bacterial environment of your gut.
When your digestion is compromised, our bodies can under-produce neurotransmitters, like serotonin. (95 percent of serotonin is produced in the small intestine.) Low serotonin is attributed to anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues.
10 Health Facts About Your Gut and What’s Going On
As absurd as the idea that human behaviour can be influenced by single cell microbes may sound, it is probably not that far fetched when you really think about it. After all gut bacteria vastly out number human cells in the body, to the tune of 10 to 1
The microbes inside our body, mostly in the gut, exert far more influence on us than we can ever imagine. Studies have shown that certain kinds of behaviour can be more prevalent, such as anxiety, when there are increased amounts of certain strains of pathogenic bacteria within the gut. There were also changes in the brain when certain strains of bacteria were present in the gut. Nutrition and gut health play a major role in reducing, anxiety, anger and violent behaviour.
17*Stress can mess up your gut.
our gut manufactures significantly more neurotransmitters, such as serotonin (the feel good hormone), than does the brain. In fact 80 to 90 percent of your serotonin is made in the gut and every class of brain neurotransmitter has been found in the gut.
5*A lot of people use the word “gut” to refer to the intestines. However the gut generally signifies the entire passage between a human’s mouth and the anus, including the oesophagus and stomach.
This ENS is known as the second brain
20 Interesting facts about the gut | Wild Delicious
Tissue heterogeneity and other disadvantages of tissue microarray
It is a practical and effective tool for high-throughput molecular analysis of tissues that is helping to identify new diagnostic and prognostic markers and targets in human cancers, and has a range of potential applications in basic research, prognostic oncology and drug discovery
Tissue Microarray: A rapidly evolving diagnostic and research tool
With large amounts of sections available, all of them can be analyzed simultaneously
The Tissue Microarray: Tissue Analysis from Research to Treatment - BioChain Institute Inc.
give him his own time as well.
. While these factors may be considered, the main factor should be his character, behavior and personality.
Being single is better than being in a 1-way relationship.
Should I have a boyfriend?
(4) Should I have a boyfriend? - Quora
totally cool with their solo situation
Real Reasons You Want A Boyfriend Even Though You're Perfectly Happy On Your Own
Ligands that interact with cell-surface receptors do not have to enter the cell that they affect.
This type of receptor spans the plasma membrane and performs signal transduction, converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular signal
Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors | Boundless Biology
Pre-registration using the UBE Express App
Robinsons Malls participates in COVID-19 vaccination simulation - Robinsons Land Corporation
they can sometimes transport informational macromolecules
ap junctions are important in coordinating the activities of electrically active cells, and they have a coordinating role in other groups of cells as well
share many of their inorganic ions and other small molecules and are therefore chemically and electrically coupled
Gap junctions are communicating junctions composed of clusters of connexons that allow molecules smaller than about 1000 daltons to pass directly from the inside of one cell to the inside of the next
Tight junctions are occluding junctions that are crucial in maintaining the concentration differences of small hydrophilic molecules across epithelial cell sheets.
directly connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells.
individual gap-junction channels do not remain continuously open; instead, they flip between open and closed states.
Cell coupling via gap junctions also seems to be important in embryogenesis
In tissues containing electrically excitable cells, coupling via gap junctions serves an obvious purpose.
The channels they form (connexons) allow inorganic ions and other small water-soluble molecules to pass directly from the cytoplasm of one cell to the cytoplasm of the other, thereby coupling the cells both electrically and metabolically
Each gap junction appears in conventional electron micrographs as a patch where the membranes of two adjacent cells are separated by a uniform narrow gap of about 2–4 nm
e gap is spanned by channel-forming proteins (connexins)
most cells in animal tissues are in communication with their neighbors via gap junctions.
The beltlike junction encircles each of the interacting cells.
Adherens junctions. (A) Adherens junctions, in the form of adhesion belts,
ntinuous adhesion belt
Anchoring junctions are widely distributed in animal tissues and are most abundant in tissues that are subjected to severe mechanical stress, such as heart, muscle, and epidermis.
enable the junctions to signal to the cell interior.
Anchoring junctions solve the problem by forming a strong membrane-spanning structure that is tethered inside the cell to the tension-bearing filaments of the cytoskeleton
In invertebrates, septate junctions are the main occluding junction.
ability of tight junctions to restrict the passage of ions through the spaces between cells
Second, tight junctions seal neighboring cells together so that, if a low-molecular-weight tracer is added to one side of an epithelium, it will generally not pass beyond the tight junction
First, they function as barriers to the diffusion of some membrane proteins (and lipids) between apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane
o maintain this directional transport, the apical set of transport proteins must not be allowed to migrate to the basolateral surface of the cell, and the basolateral set must not be allowed to migrate to the apical surface. Furthermore, the spaces between epithelial cells must be tightly sealed, so that the transported molecules cannot diffuse back into the gut lumen through these spaces
This function requires that the adjacent cells be sealed together by occluding junction
Cell Junctions - Molecular Biology of the Cell - NCBI Bookshelf
This channel is big enough to allow small molecules such as inorganic ions, and other small water soluble molecules (smaller than 1000kDa) to pass between the cells. However the channel is too small for proteins, nucleic acids or sugars to pass through.
because it is circular or spot like in outline, and not belt- or band shaped like adherens junctions.
This marginal band can contract, and deform the shape of cells held together in this way
Inside the cell, actin filaments (microfilaments, shown here in red) join up the the adhesion junctions.
This type of junction greatly restricts the passage of water, electrolytes and other small molecules across the epithelium. Transmembrane proteins from each cell membrane interlock across the intercellular space, all around the cell, in this belt (black lines in the diagram)
These regions of the cells are very tightly connected together, such that the adjacent plasma membranes are sealed together.
Epithelia: The Histology Guide
ap junctions constitute the communicating type of cell junctions. Their presence allows for selective transport between the cells of material having molecular weight less than 1000 Da. Molecularly a channel-like structure made up of proteins, they permit movement of inorganic ions and are crucial in regulating the electrical signals at neural and neuromuscular junctions .
anchoring junctions, connect the cytoskeletal network of the cell to the adjoining cells and/or the extracellular matrix, helping the tissue to survive any inflicted mechanical stress.
Occluding junctions include tight junctions that serve to create an impermeable or semipermeable barrier between the adjoining epithelial cells. They are barriers to the transportation of material and control the movement of membrane transport proteins between the apical and basal layers of epithelia.
Anchoring Junction - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
The purpose of tight junctions is to keep liquid from escaping between cells, allowing a layer of cell
cells are held tightly against each other by many individual groups of tight junction proteins called claudins, each of which interacts with a partner group on the opposite cell membrane
Not all junctions between cells produce cytoplasmic connections
Instead, tight junctions create a watertight seal between two adjacent animal cells.
they are channels between neighboring cells that allow for the transport of ions, water, and other substances3^3
Cell-cell junctions | Gap junctions (article) | Khan Academy
(ChIP-Seq) is a powerful method for identifying genome-wide DNA binding sites for transcription factors and other proteins.
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (ChIP-Seq)
new technological advance, improvements can be made to streamline the development process
Cas-CLOVER: The Clean Alternative to CRISPR-Cas9
However, you can never be 100% confident that you don’t have any off-target effects.
known as ‘off-target’ modifications
Pros and Cons of CRISPR: Simple Tips for Weighing Up CRISPR for Genome Editing
Rabies is considered to be a neglected disease, which is 100% fatal though 100% preventable. It is not among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the country but it is regarded as a significant public health problem because (1) it is one of the most acutely fatal infection and (2) it is responsible for the death of 200-300 Filipinos annually.
Rabies Prevention and Control Program | Department of Health website
Furthermore, rabies is considered as one of the lowest priority diseases by the local health authorities , i.e., a neglected tropical disease.
Our analyses showed that canine rabies in Davao City was weather-sensitive, which implies that rabies incidence could be projected using established long-run relationship among reported rabies cases, temperature, and precipitation. This study also provides empirical evidence that can guide local health officials in formulating preventive strategies for rabies control and eradication based on weather patterns.
modeling the relationships between weather components and disease incidences
The Philippines aims to be rabies-free by 2022
A cointegration analysis of rabies cases and weather components in Davao City, Philippines from 2006 to 2017
Duque said he hopes to "declare the Philippines a rabies-free country by 2030."
The WHO said the disease is responsible for the deaths of 200 to 300 Philippine people per year.
300 Philippine people die each year from rabies disease - Xinhua | English.news.cn
Tissue formation during embryonic development, wound healing and immune responses all require the orchestrated movement of cells in particular directions to specific locations.
Cell migration - Wikipedia
Disruption of this reaction could impact on (1) the balance between adenine and guanine nucleotides by interfering with the interconversion pathway, (2) nitrogen metabolism by limiting the production of ureides, (3) hormonal imbalance by promoting substrate accumulation for purine-based cytokinin synthesis (Haberer and Kieber, 2002), and (4) perturbed 14-3-3 protein regulation of key primary metabolic enzymes through the accumulation of AMP
Toward this end, it is reasonable to consider the immediate consequences of an inability to deaminate AMP in a plant cell.
AMPD is essential for plant life.
AMPD is also the intracellular target for a class of natural phytotoxins and related synthetic herbicides
The Arabidopsis FAC1 locus encodes an AMP deaminase (AMPD; EC 18.104.22.168), which is a eukaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of AMP to IMP.
These combined results support the hypothesis that AMPD is the primary intracellular target for this class of herbicides and strongly suggest that adenine nucleotide accumulation is a metabolic trigger for DF toxicity.
Adenine Nucleotide Pool Perturbation Is a Metabolic Trigger for AMP Deaminase Inhibitor-Based Herbicide Toxicity
overexpression of Xyr1 was performed to enhance cellulase production
A cost-effective production of cellulases (and xylanases) is thought to be a bottleneck for biofuel production. Consequently, strain design and process optimizations have been deployed with the aim to produce high amounts of cellulases (and xylanases) using cheap substrates
Fusion transcription factors for strong, constitutive expression of cellulases and xylanases in Trichoderma reesei | Biotechnology for Biofuels | Full Text
Therefore, most of the tools for the expression of transgenes and gene knockdown have been developed for and are specific for this species
Genetic Engineering of Algae for Enhanced Biofuel Production
Results revealed that overexpression or down-regulation of NbERF173 altered the resistance levels to P. parasitica in transgenic N. benthamiana plants.
Here, we selected an ERF family member (NbERF173) that was strongly induced by P. parasitica infection for further characterization.
AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor) transcription factors belong to one of the largest plant transcription factor families, which are characterized by the conserved AP2/ERF DNA binding domain of 57–66 amino acid residues in length
we found that NbERF173 could not bind to the promoters of PI1-B and KTI1 using yeast one-hybrid assay.
A Nicotiana benthamiana AP2/ERF transcription factor confers resistance to Phytophthora parasitica | Phytopathology Research | Full Text
However, the genetic modification of microalgae offers more avenues for the precise control of target mechanisms leading to enhanced cellular lipid accumulation under normal growth conditions
Among these stressors, nitrogen starvation is the most potent for lipid enhancement
The rapid stride in the manipulation of oil biosynthesis in plants for oil enhancement provides clues for engineering the microalgal lipid metabolism
Frontiers | Tailoring Microalgae for Efficient Biofuel Production | Marine Science
Astaxanthin usually serves as food additive for salmon, trout, and shrimp for many aquacultures and also for the poultry industry and food coloring agent
Among a wide variety of fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are of great concern due to their health benefits and an increasing demand in the global market
It has been reported that phytol may enhance an immunological response against tumor in a very beginning stage of carcinogenesis
In recent years, terpenoids have gained more attention at commercial level due to their efficient roles in therapeutic and pesticide industries
In this article, we have summarized functions of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds etc.), phytohormones and toxins obtained from cyanobacteria and algae.
Apart from the toxic metabolite production, they are also enriched with several pharmacologically active compounds that have antibacterial
Some metabolites such as cyanotoxins are reported to have toxic effects, but they can be exploited for their allelochemical nature and can be introduced in agricultural fields as pesticides i.e., algicides, fungicides, weedicides, and herbicides
Cyanobacteria and algae are the immense sources of several metabolites such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, pigments, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenes, and vitamins which can be utilized in biotechnology and industrial fields
Frontiers | Uncovering Potential Applications of Cyanobacteria and Algal Metabolites in Biology, Agriculture and Medicine: Current Status and Future Prospects | Microbiology
The Yeast (Y2H) and Bacterial (B2H) Two Hybrid methods which are among the most explored in vivo genetic tools to map PPIs.
A comparison of two hybrid approaches for detecting protein-protein interactions
Overexpression of LgUGDH increased the content of soluble sugars and hemicelluloses and enhanced vegetative growth and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. These results reveal that L. gmelinii UGDH participates in sucrose/polysaccharide metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis and may be a good candidate gene for enhancing plant growth, cold tolerance, and hemicellulose content.
Overexpression of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Larix gmelinii enhances growth and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana | SpringerLink
Therefore, inhibition of both 5′-nucleotidase and AMPD has the potential to elevate AMP levels, cause downstream activation of AMPK, and boost catabolic pathways.
Inhibition of AMP Deaminase Activity Does Not Improve Glucose Control in Rodent Models of Insulin Resistance or Diabetes - ScienceDirect
A T7 RNA polymerase chimeric gene containing a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a tobacco ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small-subunit chloroplast transit-peptide sequence was introduced into tobacco by nuclear transformation.
Controlled expression of plastid transgenes in plants based on a nuclear DNA-encoded and plastid-targeted T7 RNA polymerase.
Thus, in C. reinhardtii, multiple silencing mechanisms, some RNAi dependent and some RNAi independent, may allow more effective control of transposon mobilization over a wide range of environmental conditions.
RNA-Mediated Silencing in Algae: Biological Roles and Tools for Analysis of Gene Function
In reverse genetics, the functional study of a gene starts with the gene sequence rather than a mutant phenotype.
A genome-wide library of double-stranded RNAs that target every gene in the Drosophila genome has also been published that is suitable for high throughput cell-based assays (Kuttenkeuler and Boutros 2004). One difficulty in using RNAi as a reverse genetic technique is that throughput is limited by the ability to deliver siRNAs to target loci (Henikoff, Till, and Comai 2004). It is also labor intensive, can give ambiguous results, and can be unsuitable for isolating mutants that have lethal or sterile phenotypes (Gilchrist and Haughn 2005).
RNAi has been used for a systematic analysis of gene function in C. elegans by generating loss of function phenotypes, creating a library of worms expressing dsDNA corresponding to different genes (Lewin 2004).
RNA interference (RNAi) is the process by which expression of a target gene is inhibited by antisense and sense RNAs
The goal in reverse genetics is to investigate the impact of induced variation within a specific gene and to infer gene function.
a gene sequence is known, but its exact function is uncertain
The investigator eventually ends up sequencing the gene or genes thought to be involved
An Introduction to Reverse Genetic Tools for Investigating Gene Function
The sequenced genomes, in conjunction with nuclear transformation, may allow reverse genetic approaches, such as siRNAs, to dissect the molecular pathways regulating diatom metabolism, allowing us to improve their potential as biofuel-generating organisms and our understanding of their basic biology
However, despite the improvement in codon optimization, it was found that C. reinhardtii can and often does efficiently silence or downregulate nonrequired heterologous genes when expressed at high levels, perhaps as a defense against viral infection.
heterologous gene expression tools
However, upon identifying strains that have one or more of these characteristics, advanced genomic approaches should help elucidate the pathways that allow these traits to persist
biofuel production strains that combine rapid growth rates, high lipid yields and an ability to grow to relatively high densities while ideally having good crop protection and harvestability characteristics is low
o knock-out or -down genes that affect pathways of interest
The high lipid content, high growth rate and ability to rapidly improve strains and produce co-products, without competing for arable land, make algae an exciting addition to the sustainable fuel portfolio.
Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential
three key components of the RNAi machinery
Dicer, Argonaute-Piwi (AGO-Piwi), and RDR
RNA-mediated silencing pathways have been studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and used as a reverse genetics tool in a few algal species
However, RNAi mechanisms and their applications remain largely uncharacterized in most algae.
At least two major classes of sRNAs have been identified in many eukaryotes: microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)
In this context, greater knowledge of RNA-mediated silencing pathways in algae may provide insights into both a mechanism(s) of gene regulation and a tool for the characterization of genes with unknown functions.
RNA-Mediated Silencing in Algae: Biological Roles and Tools for Analysis of Gene Function
Transformed bacteria (dsRNA-Bac) administered through artificial diet proved to be more effective than dsRNA synthesized in vitro, both in terms of gene silencing and immunosuppression.
Enhancement of Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity by feeding Spodoptera littoralis larvae with bacteria expressing immune suppressive dsRNA | SpringerLink
RNAi is used as an immune response to infection5 and as a natural defense mechanism against molecular parasites such as jumping genes and viral genetic elements that affect genome stability
RNAi for Crop Improvement | ISAAA.org
Mammalian cells are plated on a glass slide spotted in defined locations with transfection mixtures containing different RNAi triggers
First, individual siRNAs or shRNAs can be transfected and screened in multiwell format for activation or repression, of a reporter or activity in a cell-based or biochemical assay
Conversely, reverse genetic approaches involve the disruption of a gene of interest, so as to determine its function and/or involvement in a pathway.
The identification of all genes encoded in the human genome opens the door for large-scale systematic gene silencing using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs).
RNA-interference-based functional genomics in mammalian cells: reverse genetics coming of age | Oncogene
produce a blue rose, but it has now been achieved with the help of RNA silencing
ronically, the plant RNAi application most likely to be the next commercial reality is one that delivers aesthetic rather than nutritional, medical, or environmental benefits to humankind.
As most plant viruses have single-stranded RNA genomes, they have been the obvious targets for RNAi technology; indeed, we now know that a natural role of the RNA silencing/PTGS pathway in plants is for virus defense
Unsurprisingly, given the history of the discovery of PTGS, protection of plants from viral infection has been one of the first commercial outcomes resulting from the application of a gene silencing technique.
RNA Silencing in Plants: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
This stable association stimulates plant growth in the absence of inorganic nitrogen.
However, little is known about rice-cyanobacteria association at the molecular and structural levels or the mechanisms involved in cyanobacteria-plant recognition.
Endophytic Colonization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by the Symbiotic Strain Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions®
The present investigation was undertaken to screen, for the first time, a large collection of symbiotic Nostoc strains for their ability to associate and colonize rice plants.
Nostoc is one of the most versatile terrestrial N2-fixing cyanobacteria. This genus occurs as free-living forms and in symbioses, covering a wide range of habitats, and is known to withstand a variety of modes of C and N nutrition
the use of N2-fixing cyanobacteria as biofertilizers in rice cultivation has been popularised. Such inoculation with free-living cyanobacteria (algalization) has been shown to increase growth and crop yield of rice
Colonization of roots of rice (Oryza sativa) by symbiotic Nostoc strains - Nilsson - 2002 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library