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Kimberly Onza
94 articles
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  • Oral vaccines also obviate the need for trained medical personnel to administer them and reduce the risks of infection associated with needles. They also have higher compliance from patients, owing to the lack of fear and resistance associated with injections. Both of these latter aspects are important considerations for successful vaccination campaign coverage in remote or resource-limited settings.
  • Perhaps the most significant benefit of oral vaccination is the ability to elicit both mucosal and systemic immunity.
  • Many developing world diseases do not yet have vaccines, in part because traditional vaccine production costs present a significant investment hurdle, considering the financial capacity of the intended consumers. Both cost and ease of administration are challenges that must be tackled to address this undue burden on global health and productivity.
  • Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.
  • Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels.
5 annotations
  • dditionally, these compounds are soluble in water, easily extractable via an aqueous extraction technique, and easily modifiable while extraction of plant-based compounds requires harmful organic compounds
  • However, when comparing to plant-based compounds which also exhibit anti SARS-CoV-2 activity, production cost of algal sulfated polysaccharides is cheaper, owing to their abundant amount in the marine habitat
  • This could prove to be a challenge as further research and development of algae might be unfavorable due to its costly expenses in harvesting
  • Challenges and future perspectives
  • Berndt et al. [31Berndt A, Smalley T, Ren B, et al. Recombinant production of a functional SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. bioRxiv; 2021. [Google Scholar]] listed the challenges of non-animal cell production systems for the production of useful virus spike proteins, including bacterial system, which showed poor protein folding, fungal system which had low productivity as well as plant-based systems which had low biomass productivity. However, algae can be scaled up very rapidly, grown photosynthetically or heterotrophically, and demonstrated to fold complicated eukaryotic proteins, to be genetically modified, and to express recombinant proteins [31Berndt A, Smalley T, Ren B, et al. Recombinant production of a functional SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. bioRxiv; 2021. [Google Scholar]]. Gene editing technologies have proven its great potential in current advancements as genetic modification ventures into microalgal strains to improve productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application [36Spicer A, Molnar A. Gene editing of Microalgae: scientific progress and regulatory challenges in Europe. Biology (Basel). 2018;7. [PubMed], [Google Scholar],37Fayyaz M, Chew KW, Show PL, et al. Genetic engineering of microalgae for enhanced biorefinery capabilities. Biotechnol Adv. 2020;43:107554. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]].
  • here have been several biopharmaceuticals produced in algae via genetic modification. These include vaccines, some of which have been evaluated at the preclinical trial level such as vaccines against peanut allergies, malaria, and Human papillomavirus [9Rosales-Mendoza S, García-Silva I, González-Ortega O, et al. The potential of algal biotechnology to produce antiviral compounds and biopharmaceuticals. Molecules. 2020;25(18):4049. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]].
  • lgal nutraceuticals with their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immunostimulatory, and immunomodulatory properties are also important for boosting immunity, preventing diseases and treating disorders associated with the severe SARS-CoV-2 infections, such as anti-inflammatory treatment and tissue repair
  • Algae and cyanobacteria with a chemo-diversity can be identified as a relevant origin for the development of antiviral therapy since they possess both virus suppressing properties and immunity improving capacity
  • For instance, antiviral efficacy of algal polysaccharides including carrageenan, fucoidan, ulvan, agar, and alginates have been investigated against various viruses such as dengue virus (DENV) and HIV, besides being natural polymers which are low cost, biodegradable, non-toxic, and biocompatible
  • In fact, algae and cyanobacteria can be referred to as one of the richest manufacturers of bioactive metabolites which are pharmacologically active and exhibit antiviral propertie
  • This makes the cultivation of microalgae a sustainable and green approach, being incredible cellular factories for the production of compounds with high value [11Siddiqui A, Wei Z, Boehm M, et al. Engineering microalgae through chloroplast transformation to produce high-value industrial products. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2020;67(1):30–40. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Since microalgal metabolism changes its intracellular environment in response to the changes in the external environment, biosynthesis of specific compound can be stimulated by manipulating the metabolic pathways including culture conditions to improve photosynthetic growth [12De Morais MG, Vaz BDS, De Morais EG, et al. Biologically active metabolites synthesized by microalgae. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:1–15. [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],13Gimpel JA, Henríquez V, Mayfield SP. In metabolic engineering of eukaryotic microalgae: potential and challenges come with great diversity. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:1376. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Their special metabolic patterns are closely linked to these unique features of the environments which produce an extraordinary of active secondary metabolites that are often unique and different from those identified in terrestrial organisms [14Lauritano C, Ferrante MI, Rogato A. Marine natural products from microalgae: an -omics overview. Mar Drugs. 2019;17(5):269. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Therefore, there is a large prospect in the exploitation of microalgae for further development into pharmaceutical products, allowing them to produce products that are valuable commercially such as proteins, polysaccharides, phycobiliproteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and carotenoids, either sourced directly from primary metabolism or synthesized from secondary metabolism [15Tang DYY, Khoo KS, Chew KW, et al. Potential utilization of bioproducts from microalgae for the quality enhancement of natural products. Bioresour Technol. 2020;304:122997. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],16Tang DYY, Yew GY, Koyande AK, et al. Green technology for the industrial production of biofuels and bioproducts from microalgae: a review. Environ Chem Lett. 2020;18(6):1967–1985. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]].
  • Algae cultures in general are also more advantageous in the biopharmaceutical production as there is not much of a need to compete for agricultural land that is increasing in scarcity
  • However, the use of microalgae may be favored over plants as a result of their lower production costs, high scalability, and increased biomass culture with simple mineral requirements
  • A more conventional method of forming these products includes the usage of plants as they can be used to produce bioactive metabolites and biopharmaceuticals
  • The possible utilization of algae in producing value-added products such as serological test kits, vaccines, and supplements that would either mitigate or hinder the continued health risks caused by the virus is prominent
  • In this review, the potential of algae in combating the spread of COVID-19 is investigated since algal compounds have been tested against viruses and algal anti-inflammatory compounds have the potential to treat the severe symptoms of COVID-19.
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  • We hypothesize that overrepresented motifs correspond to TFs that are more likely to bind to bidirectional promoters than to unidirectional promoters, so much so that their binding-site abundance in bidirectional promoters exceeds expectation (sum of sites in two unidirectional promoters). In contrast, underrepresented motifs correspond to TFs that preferentially regulate unidirectional promoters. TFs of shared motifs show no preference, possibly corresponding to potent regulators, as they do not require augmentation to the number of binding sites for effective usage in bidirectional promoters, assuming multiple sites lead to a higher likelihood of binding.
  • he number of binding sites in bidirectional promoters is smaller than the number of sites in a single unidirectional promoter.
  • The number of binding sites is larger in bidirectional promoters than is the number of sites in a single unidirectional promoter, but smaller than the sum of sites in two unidirectional promoters.
  • The number of binding sites in bidirectional promoters is larger on average than the sum of sites in two unidirectional promoters
  • Underrepresented:
  • Shared:
  • Overrepresented:
  • Detailed analysis reveal that the dominant mode of transcription in bidirectional promoters is to activate both downstream genes, and that this can be achieved with as little as a single TF binding site.
  • we found evidence for overrepresentation for the binding of certain TFs and modified histones.
  • Because bidirectional promoters have the ability to activate two downstream genes concurrently, one of our goals was to determine whether there are sequence signatures that distinguish this mode of regulation from that of unidirectional promoters.
  • They also display a mirror sequence composition, such that Gs and Ts dominate on one side of the midpoint, while Cs and As dominate on the other side (Engstrom et al. 2006). How these general features influence the binding of transcription factors (TFs) to bidirectional promoters is unknown.
  • . For example, most bidirectional promoters lack TATA boxes and are both GC-rich and enriched in CpG islands (Adachi and Lieber 2002; Takai and Jones 2004; Trinklein et al. 2004)
  • We define a bidirectional promoter as an intergenic region that is <1 kb long, and flanked by the transcription start site (TSS) of a plus-strand gene on one side and the TSS of a minus-strand gene on the other.
  • Signatures of active transcription, such as occupancy of RNA polymerase II and the modified histones H3K4me2, H3K4me3, and H3ac, are overrepresented in regions around bidirectional promoters, suggesting that a higher fraction of divergent genes are transcribed in a given cell than the fraction of other genes.
  • We categorized the presence of DNA sequence motifs, binding of transcription factors, and modified histones as overrepresented, shared, or underrepresented in bidirectional promoters with respect to unidirectional promoters.
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  • they can sometimes transport informational macromolecules
  • ap junctions are important in coordinating the activities of electrically active cells, and they have a coordinating role in other groups of cells as well
  • share many of their inorganic ions and other small molecules and are therefore chemically and electrically coupled
  • Gap junctions are communicating junctions composed of clusters of connexons that allow molecules smaller than about 1000 daltons to pass directly from the inside of one cell to the inside of the next
  • Tight junctions are occluding junctions that are crucial in maintaining the concentration differences of small hydrophilic molecules across epithelial cell sheets.
  • directly connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells.
  • individual gap-junction channels do not remain continuously open; instead, they flip between open and closed states.
  • Cell coupling via gap junctions also seems to be important in embryogenesis
  • In tissues containing electrically excitable cells, coupling via gap junctions serves an obvious purpose.
  • The channels they form (connexons) allow inorganic ions and other small water-soluble molecules to pass directly from the cytoplasm of one cell to the cytoplasm of the other, thereby coupling the cells both electrically and metabolically
  • Each gap junction appears in conventional electron micrographs as a patch where the membranes of two adjacent cells are separated by a uniform narrow gap of about 2–4 nm
  • e gap is spanned by channel-forming proteins (connexins)
  • most cells in animal tissues are in communication with their neighbors via gap junctions.
  • The beltlike junction encircles each of the interacting cells.
  • Adherens junctions. (A) Adherens junctions, in the form of adhesion belts,
  • ntinuous adhesion belt
  • Anchoring junctions are widely distributed in animal tissues and are most abundant in tissues that are subjected to severe mechanical stress, such as heart, muscle, and epidermis.
  • enable the junctions to signal to the cell interior.
  • Anchoring junctions solve the problem by forming a strong membrane-spanning structure that is tethered inside the cell to the tension-bearing filaments of the cytoskeleton
  • In invertebrates, septate junctions are the main occluding junction.
  • ability of tight junctions to restrict the passage of ions through the spaces between cells
  • Second, tight junctions seal neighboring cells together so that, if a low-molecular-weight tracer is added to one side of an epithelium, it will generally not pass beyond the tight junction
  • First, they function as barriers to the diffusion of some membrane proteins (and lipids) between apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane
  • o maintain this directional transport, the apical set of transport proteins must not be allowed to migrate to the basolateral surface of the cell, and the basolateral set must not be allowed to migrate to the apical surface. Furthermore, the spaces between epithelial cells must be tightly sealed, so that the transported molecules cannot diffuse back into the gut lumen through these spaces
  • This function requires that the adjacent cells be sealed together by occluding junction
  • Occluding junctions
  • Anchoring junctions
  • Communicating junctions
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  • Astaxanthin usually serves as food additive for salmon, trout, and shrimp for many aquacultures and also for the poultry industry and food coloring agent
  • Among a wide variety of fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are of great concern due to their health benefits and an increasing demand in the global market
  • It has been reported that phytol may enhance an immunological response against tumor in a very beginning stage of carcinogenesis
  • In recent years, terpenoids have gained more attention at commercial level due to their efficient roles in therapeutic and pesticide industries
  • In this article, we have summarized functions of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds etc.), phytohormones and toxins obtained from cyanobacteria and algae.
  • anticancerous
  • Apart from the toxic metabolite production, they are also enriched with several pharmacologically active compounds that have antibacterial
  • Some metabolites such as cyanotoxins are reported to have toxic effects, but they can be exploited for their allelochemical nature and can be introduced in agricultural fields as pesticides i.e., algicides, fungicides, weedicides, and herbicides
  • Cyanobacteria and algae are the immense sources of several metabolites such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, pigments, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenes, and vitamins which can be utilized in biotechnology and industrial fields
9 annotations