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Kayla Chatfield
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  • used environmentally relevant concentrations of cocaine in their research.
  • On top of this, the muscle swelling or breakdown could impair the eels’ ability to even reach the Sargasso Sea.
  • She also notes that increased dopamine levels the eels experienced on cocaine could also stop them from reaching sexual maturity. “It is likely that in this condition, the reproduction of the eels could be impaired.”
  • Particularly concerning is that cocaine increases cortisol levels, a stress hormone that induces fat consumption. The trouble is European eels need to build up fat before their migration to the Sargasso Sea to breed, and higher levels of cortisol could delay the timing of this journey.
  • “All the main functions of these animals could be altered,”
  • They found the drug accumulates in the brain, muscles, gills, skin, and other tissues of the eels. The muscle of the fish also showed swelling and even breakdowns, and the hormones that regulate their physiology changed. These problems were even around after an enforced 10-day rehab period in which the researchers removed the eels from water with cocaine.
  • Capaldo and her colleagues put eels into water with very small levels of cocaine—about the same as that found in some rivers. They found the eels appeared hyperactive but showed the same general health as drug-free eels. But their bodies told a different story.
  • water near densely populated cities is even worse,
  • “Data show a great presence of illicit drugs and their metabolites in surface waters worldwide,”
  • The eels are vulnerable to trace concentrations of cocaine, particularly in their early lives
  • While the eels are also farmed for food, the wild population is considered critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to dams and other waterway changes that block their migrations, overfishing, and different types of water pollution.
  • European eels have complex life patterns, spending 15 to 20 years in fresh or brackish water in European waterways before crossing the Atlantic Ocean to spawn in the Sargasso Sea just east of the Caribbean and the U.S. Eastern Seaboard.
  • scientists pushed cocaine on European eels in labs for 50 days in a row, in an effort to monitor the effects of the experience on the fish.
  • tor the effects of the experience on the fish.
  • less understood are the downstream effects these drugs might have on other species after they enter the aquatic environment through wastewater.
  • Critically endangered eels hyped up on cocaine could have trouble making a 3,700-mile trip to mate and reproduce—new research warns.
16 annotations
  • Primate studies have shown that intrauterine cocaine exposure (during a period corresponding to the second trimester in humans) results in a decrease in the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex and disorganization of the normal laminar structure of the cortex
  • cocaine inhibits the uptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin by their respective transporters, thus increasing synaptic levels of these neurotransmitters
  • The brain is characterized by complex interactions of neural circuits and multiple neurotransmitters.
  • well-controlled behavioral studies in the laboratory [5] and invasive anatomic, physiological, and biochemical studies
  • Animal models have the advantage of permitting the study of individual drugs such as cocaine with far fewer confounding variables than those that bedevil human studie
  • cell culture and fetal rat models to investigate mechanisms by which cocaine might decrease the number of neurons in the brain
  • Animal and cell culture models have been widely used to investigate effects of cocaine and the mechanisms by which it might act during brain development
  • had deficits in sustained attention and problems with impulsivity at age four
  • significant cognitive deficits and a higher rate of developmental delay during the first two years of life
  • at six months of age children exposed to cocaine in utero have been observed to have abnormalities of tone and posture
  • , children exposed to cocaine prenatally appear to have neurological and cognitive deficits
  • poor nutrition, low levels of prenatal care, and other problems that confound analysis
  • The attribution of risk to specific drugs remains challenging, however, because women addicted to cocaine often use other illegal drugs as well as alcohol and tobacco.
  • Women addicted to cocaine often continue drug use through pregnancy, despite risks to the fetuses they are carrying.
14 annotations
  • federal laws can differ from state laws, such as marijuana legalization
  • at the local level, some towns and cities might create specific ordinances tailored to their unique needs, such as banning cigarette smoking in the downtown area. At the federal level, policies are created that apply to the federal criminal justice system and can apply to states as well. 
  • Other policies like sex offender registration acknowledge that sex offenders exist and registering them will control the level of deviation, sometimes preventing-or perceiving to prevent future offenses.
  • Policies, such as the three strikes law or Measure 11, seek to prevent future crime by incapacitating offenders through incarceration
  • crime control alludes to the maintenance of the crime level
  • crime prevention “entails any action designed to reduce the actual level of crime and/or the perceived fear of crime.”
  • crime prevention” and “crime control.”
  • “crime prevention” and “crime control.”
  • “crime prevention” and “crime control.”
  • it is important to understand the difference between “crime prevention” and “crime control.
  • Theory-Policy-Research
  • called for new approaches, programs, policies, funding models, and research on the cause of crime. In addressing the causes of crime (theory), and using appropriate data collection (research), effective policies and programs could be proposed.
  • 1967 President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice highlighted the crime problem, and the criminal justice system’s failure to address the problem.
  • Modern-day crime policies can be traced to changes in crime and delinquency in the 1960s. That decade saw major increases in the crime rate along with widespread social unrest as a result of the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights movement
  • Policies include issues related: to juvenile justice, drug legislation, intimate partner violence, prison overcrowding, school safety, new federal immigration laws, terrorism, and national security.
  • Policy represents social control and ensures members of society are compliant and conform to the laws. Policies include issues related: to juvenile justice, drug legislation, intimate partner violence, prison overcrowding, school safety, new federal immigration laws, terrorism, and national security.
17 annotations
  • what is law is not always effective and what is effective is not always la
  • problematic as fees not only increase recidivism but also increase the likelihood of a “revolving door” juvenile justice system for minority youth.
  • Cost-benefit evaluations, or analysis, seeks to determine if the costs of a policy
  • do not address the actual impact policy has on the crime problem, just what was done about a specific issue or who was involved.
  • detailed, descriptive accounts of the implementation of the policy including the goals of the program, who is involved, the level of training, the number of clients served, and changes to the program over time.
  • Process evaluations consider the implementation of a policy or program and involve determining the procedure used to implement the policy.
  • Impact (outcome) evaluations focus on what changes after the introduction of the crime policy.
  • Impact, Process, and Cost-benefit analysis
  • evaluation examines the efficacy of the policy. There are three different types of evaluation: I
  • Evaluation
  • mplementation is about moving forward, taking action, and spending money. It involves hiring new staff or additional police officers. This is where policies often stall because of the lack of funding.
  • Implementation of the Policy
  • Formulation and Adoption
  • Formulation and Adoption The next stage involved adopting the policy. Depending on the nature of the policy, this could involve a new law or an executive order.
  • It involves identifying the legislative, regulatory, judicial, or other institutions responsible for policy adoption and formulation.
  • policy. This is similar to the community police response acronym SARA (scanning, analysis,
  • This is similar to the community police response acronym SARA (scanning, analysis, response, and assessment) and uses some of the same techniques, but on a much bigger, national level.
  • Most policy models generally include the following stages: (1) identifying the issue to be addressed by the proposed policy, (2) placement on the agenda, (3) formulation of the policy, (4) implementation of the policy, and (5) evaluation of the policy.
  • The stages of policy development can generally be categorized into 5 general stages.
  • 5 general stages. U
20 annotations
  • Suitable targets can be vacant houses, parked cars, a person, or any item. In reality, almost anything can be a suitable target. Finally, the absence of a capable guardian facilitates the criminal event.
  • three things must converge in time in space for a crime to be committed – a motivated offender, a suitable target, and the absence of a capable guardian.
  • Routine Activity Theory
  • The theory advocates for a situational crime prevention approach by reducing opportunities. Reducing opportunities is much easier to manipulate and change compared to changing society, culture, or individuals.
  • Bounded rationality is the constraint of  both time and relevant information; offenders must make a decision in a timely fashion with the information at hand.
  • They claimed offenders rationally calculate costs and benefits before committing crime and assumed people want to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.
  • Rational Choice Theory
  • classical and neoclassical premises to focus on “what works” in preventing crime instead of focusing on why people commit criminal acts.
  • crime is a choice based on context.
  • Neoclassical theory recognizes people experience punishments differently, and a person’s environment, psychology, and other conditions can contribute to crime as well.
  • Specific deterrence uses punishment to reduce the crime of particular persons. The effect of the punishment depends on the nature of the punishment and who is punished.
  • General deterrence uses punishment to deter crime among people in the general population. It uses punishment as an example for those people not punished.
  • There are two types of deterrence: general deterrence and specific deterrence.
  • Deterrence theory tries to change a person’s behavior through laws and punishments.
14 annotations
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1 annotation
  • Third, the media are particularly powerful in creating and advancing the moral panic.
  • Second, the police or other law enforcement officials (prosecutors or even the military)
  • First, folk devils 
  • Fourth, politicians are also protagonists in a moral panic.
  • The fifth and final category of moral panic is the public.
  • They are similar to law enforcement in this drama and they have an obligation to protect society from folk devils.
  • Fourth, politicians are also protagonists in a moral panic. They spin the public opinion and present themselves as the safeguards of the moral high ground. 
  • framing focuses on the broad categories, segments, or angles through which a story can be told. Frames include factual and interpretive claims that allow people to organize events and experiences into groups
  • narratives 
  • Agenda setting
  • Framing 
  • narratives are about the story that is tol
  •  Framing refers to a type of agenda setting in a prepackaged way
  • Agenda setting is the way the media draw the public’s eye to a specific topic
  • e folk devils as much more threatening to society than they really are. Journalists feed public anxiety and fear, which heightens the moral panic. Media influences policy in two ways: (1) they select the “important” issues (agenda setting), (2) they problematize policy by attaching meaning to it. In this way, the frame and construct the narratives.
  • Furthermore, the moral panic can offer law enforcement legitimacy as moral crusaders and protectors. Law enforcement has a purpose to defend society and rid it of the folk devils which threaten their safety and well being.
  • aw enforcement has a purpose to defend society
  • ials (prosecutors or even the military) are essential for propagating the moral panic since the
  • Folk devils are the embodiment of evil and center stage of the moral panic drama. They have no redeeming qualities so it is easy for the population to fear and hate them.
  • They kill or maim on impulse, without any intelligible motive…The buzz of impulsive violence, the vacant stares and smiles, and the remorseless eyes…they quite literally have no concept of the future….they place zero value on the lives of their victims, whom they reflexively dehumanize…capable of committing the most heinous acts of physical violence for the most trivial reasons…for as long as their youthful energies hold out, they will do what comes “naturally”: murder, rape, rob, assault, burglarize, deal deadly drugs, and get high.
  • black inner-city neighborhoods,
  • We’re talking about kids who have absolutely no respect for human life and no sense of the future….And make no mistake. While the trouble will be greatest in black inner-city neighborhoods, other places are also certain to have burgeoning youth-crime problems that will spill over into upscale central-city districts, inner-ring suburbs, and even the rural heartland…They kill or maim on impulse, without any intelligible motive…The buzz of impulsive violence, the vacant stares and smiles, and the remorseless eyes…they quite literally have no concept of the future….they place zero value on the lives of their victims, whom they reflexively dehumanize…capable of committing the most heinous acts of physical violence for the most trivial reasons…for as long as their youthful energies hold out, they will do what comes “naturally”: murder, rape, rob, assault, burglarize, deal deadly drugs, and get high. [3] Folk devils are the embodiment of evil and center stage of the moral panic drama. They have no redeeming qualities so it is easy for the population to fear and hate them.
  • folk devils are the people who are blamed for being allegedly responsible for the threat to societ
  • “If my child was victimized, I’d want to kill a person,” Horowitz says. “But what if my child was a victimizer? I’d also want them to have a chance” 
  • They can never fully re-enter society and are seen as never being able to be rehabilitated.
  • Missouri offenders were grouped together in one category regardless of the offense so individuals who urinated in public endured lifelong registration and were categorized with the worst of the rapists and molesters.  There was no distinction or tier structure.
  • This means that 14-year-olds, more than any other age, are being placed on a lifetime registry.
  • se include 1) folk devils, 2) rule or law enforcers, 3) the media, 4) politicians, and 5) the public. [2]
  • These include 1) folk devils, 2) rule or law enforcers, 3) the media, 4) politicians, and 5) the public. [
  • These include 1) folk devils, 2) rule or law enforcers, 3) the media, 4) politicians, and 5) the public. [2]
  • Cohen (1972)  said at least five sets of social actors are involved in a moral panic. These include 1) folk devils, 2) rule or law enforcers, 3) the media, 4) politicians, and 5) the public. [2]
  • The most problematic aspect of the moral panic is that the hysteria often results in a need to “do something” about the issue and most commonly “results in the passing of legislation that is highly punitive, unnecessary, and serves to justify the agendas of those in positions of power and authority.”
  • Moral panics arise when distorted mass media campaigns create fear and reinfo
  • Moral panics arise when distorted mass media campaigns create fear and reinf
  • Moral panics arise when distorted mass media campaigns create fear and reinforce previously held or stereotyped beliefs, frequently centered around ethnicity, religion, or social class.
  • Moral panic has been defined as a situation in which public fears and state interventions greatly exceed the objective threat posed to society by a particular individual or group who is/are claimed to be responsible for creating the threat in the first place.
36 annotations
  • accorded
  • several dysfunctions of law: legal actions may be used to harass individuals or to gain revenge rather than redress a legal wrong; the law may reflect biases and prejudices or reflect the interest of powerful economic interests; the law may be used by totalitarian regimes as an instrument of repression; the law can be too rigid because it is based on a clear set of rules that don’t always fit neatly (for example, Friedman notes that the  rules of self-defense do not apply in situations in which battered women use force to repel consistent abuse because of the law’s requirement that the threat be immediate); the law may be slow to change because of its reliance on precedent (he also notes that judges are also concerned about maintaining respect for the law and hesitate to introduce change that society is not ready to accept); that the law denies equal access to justice because of inability to pay for legal services; that courts are reluctant to second-guess the decisions of political decision-makers, particularly in times of war and crisis; that reliance on law and courts can discourage democratic political activism because Individuals and groups, when they look to courts to decide issues, divert energy from lobbying the legislature and from building political coalitions for elections; and finally, that law may impede social change because it may limit the ability of individuals to use the law to vindicate their rights and liberties. [4]
  • The respect that is accorded to the legal system can mask the dysfunctional role of the law. Dysfunctional means that the law is promoting inequality or serving the interests of a small number of individuals rather than promoting the welfare of society or is impeding the enjoyment of human rights
  • Lippman (2015) also noted that the law does not always achieve its purposes of social control, dispute resolution, and social change, but rather can harm society. He refers to this as the “dysfunctions of law.”
  • Third, the law’s resolution of disputes is dependent upon a complicated and expensive fact-finding process. Finally, the law changes slowly.
  • Second, even with community support, the law cannot compel certain types of conduct contrary to human nature.
  • the law often cannot gain community support without support of other social institutions
  • four major limitations of the law
  • Informal social control, such as social media (including Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter) has a tremendous impact on what people wear, how they think, how they speak, what people value, and perhaps how they vote.
  • Both formal and informal social control have the capacity to change behavior.
  • Law is a formal means of social control.
11 annotations
  • “With changing attitudes and changing policy, I’m hopeful that research can proceed with fewer barriers,”
  • “I’d hate to think we’re still asking the same questions 10 years from now,”
  • “The current interpretation [of the Controlled Substances Act] is that anything in the plant is Schedule I,” Vandrey says. Even though there is no evidence that cannabidiol is prone to abuse, researchers interested in studying it have to jump through the same hoops as if their study involved whole-leaf marijuana.
  • DEA’s role in making sure listed drugs are stored securely.
  • The bills would limit the time that DEA spends reviewing proposed research studies
  • Catch-22: The Schedule I listing and other restrictions on marijuana research hinder the type of studies that are needed to convince regulators to loosen those restrictions.
  • consistent dosing is an issue
  • ewer delivery systems, such as vaporizers and edible products, add still more uncertainty about the doses patients actually receive. Then there’s the natural variation in the concentration of THC and other cannabinoids in different strains of marijuana.
  • Patients in many early studies smoked it, and people ingest varying amounts of THC per puff.
  • Another complication is the variation in how cannabis is delivered.
  • research faces regulatory obstacles, because DEA still classes marijuana as a Schedule I drug: the most dangerous drugs with no known medical benefits
  • Now, Lindley’s study will enroll 50 patients with back and neck pain, who will visit the university three times and receive either vaporized cannabis, the opioid drug oxycodone, or a placebo. (In the case of cannabis, the placebo is marijuana with the THC chemically extracted; for oxycodone, the placebo is a pill.) At each visit, the patients will be given a battery of tests to assess their pain levels and look for side effects like impairments of memory, attention, and concentration.
  • “We expected to see some positive effects regarding pain control but not quite to that extent and not with that many patients,”
  • Nearly one-fifth of the 184 patients with chronic back and neck pain who responded to the survey reported using marijuana to treat their pain. Of those, 86% reported that it “moderately” or “very much” relieved their pain, and 77% said marijuana provided as much or more relief than their opioid prescription painkillers
  • “There’s definitely emerging evidence in the literature for [using cannabis to treat] neuropathic pain, but there’s hardly anything for chronic back and neck pain, which is one of the most common reasons people go see their doctor,”
  • some states that have legalized medical marijuana have begun to fund clinical studies.
  • The second, published in 2013, found that vaporized cannabis, even in low doses, relieved pain in a similar group of patients who hadn’t responded to traditional medications, including opioid analgesics.
  • The first, published in 2008, found that smoking marijuana reduced pain caused by nerve damage in 38 patients, with minimal side effects
  • Part of the reason for the scarcity of cannabis trials is that whole plants and natural extracts aren’t patentable, giving pharmaceutical companies little incentive to pursue them.
  • Journal of the American Medical Association found just 28 randomized clinical trials investigating cannabis for chronic pain.
  • Sativex combines THC with cannabidiol, another compound in marijuana that may counteract the anxiety and cognitive side effects associated with THC and that appears to have antiinflammatory effects.
  • Phytecs, a Los Angeles, California–based company developing therapies based on compounds isolated from marijuana
  • “It’s working directly on pain pathways in the brain, spinal cord, and periphery,
  • Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, the plant’s main psychoactive ingredient, binds to a class of receptors on neurons that are involved in mediating pain, appetite, and mood, among other things.
  • “It’s mind-boggling that we have millions of people in the U.S. using cannabis for medicine and we not only don’t have the proper data to help them take it appropriately, we’re not doing a good job of collecting it.”
  • marijuana is still illegal at the federal level
  • That’s a huge missed opportunity
  • Yet in the United States, where 25 states and Washington, D.C., have legalized medical marijuana, there are no state-wide efforts to collect data on how patients are using cannabis or on whether they have been affected for good or ill, in part because marijuana is still illegal at the federal level
  • In Quebec, researchers established a patient registry in 2015 to collect demographic data on patients who use medical marijuana, the type and dose they take, and the conditions they’re seeking treatment for, along with self-reports on benefits and adverse outcomes. McGill’s Ware, who is leading the effort, says the registry is also collecting data on opioid use. “We’ll certainly be looking at whether patients who manage their pain with cannabis can reduce their opioid doses over time or even wean themselves off opioids entirely,” he says.
  • It’s suggestive evidence that medical marijuana might help divert people away from the path where they would start using [an opioid drug], and of course if they don’t start, they’re not on that path to misuse and abuse and potentially death.”
  • In medical marijuana states, each physician prescribed an average of 1826 fewer doses of conventional pain medication each year, they reported in the July issue of Health Affairs. That translates into many millions of doses per year in those states.
  • “The effect for pain was three to four times larger than all of the others,”
  • Analyzing Medicare drug prescription data from 2010 to 2013, they found a significant difference in the number of prescriptions for several conditions, including anxiety and nausea, in states with medical marijuana.
  • 2010, that translated into 1729 fewer deaths in those states. The researchers also found that the effect grew stronger in the 5 to 6 years after the states approved medical marijuana.
  • examined death certificates in all 50 states between 1999 and 2010. They found that the annual rate of deaths due to overdose on an opioid painkiller was nearly 25% lower in states that permitted medical marijuan
  • million Americans were addicted to or abusing prescription opioid drugs in 2014, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Kaiser Family Foundation estimates that more than 21,000 died from overdoses.
  • additional hurdles because the plant is listed on Schedule I, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA’s) list of the most dangerous drugs.
  • The liberalization of marijuana laws in the United States has also allowed researchers to compare overdoses from painkiller prescriptions and opioids in states that permit medical marijuana versus those that don’t
  • Reynolds thought cannabis might help reduce the need for opium-based painkillers, with their potential for abuse and overdose. “The bane of many opiates and sedatives is this, that the relief of the moment, the hour, or the day, is purchased at the expense of to-morrow’s misery,” he wrote. “In no one case to which I have administered Indian hemp, have I witnessed any such results.”
  • No less an authority than Sir John Russell Reynolds, the house physician to Queen Victoria and later president of the Royal College of Physicians in London, extolled the medical virtues of cannabis in The Lancet in 1890. “In almost all painful maladies I have found Indian hemp by far the most useful of drugs,
40 annotations
  • Wrongful death is a type of tort. Torts involve injuries inflicted upon a person and are the types of civil claims or civil suits that most resemble criminal wrong
  • Sometimes criminal law and civil law overlap and an individual’s action constitute both a violation of criminal law and civil law. For example, if Joe punches Sam in the face, Sam may sue Joe civilly for civil assault and battery, and the state may also prosecute Joe for punching Sam, a criminal assault and battery
  • “Moral law attempts to perfect personal character, whereas criminal law, in general, is aimed at misbehavior that falls substantially below the norms of the community.” [1] There are no codes or statutes governing violations of moral laws in the United States.
  • Criminal laws reflect a society’s moral and ethical beliefs. They govern how society, through its government agents, holds criminal wrongdoers accountable for their actions.
  • Criminal wrongs are behaviors that harm society as a whole rather than one individual or entity specifically.
  • primary purpose of a civil suit is to financially compensate the injured party
  • Civil law covers many types of civil actions or suits including: torts (personal injury claims), contracts, property or real estate disputes, family law (including divorces, adoptions, and child custody matters), intellectual property claims (including copyright, trademark, and patent claims), and trusts and estate laws (which covers wills and probate).
  • )
  • A civil wrong is a private wrong, and the injured party’s remedy is to sue the party who caused the wrong/injury for general damages (money).
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  • He says his friends would still be alive if they'd had money to negotiate,
  • the Mexican army kills eight enemies for every one it wounds
  • vel, nonviolent cartel workers like farmers and lookouts. But he has not answered the fundamental question of whether, under his leadership, Mexico's military will continue to hunt down and take out one cartel boss after another, in close cooperation with the DEA and CIA.
  • As for security, he has called for a national guard that would merge military and police functions; job programs and scholarships to entice children away from cartels; limited decriminalization of drug possession; and some form of amnesty for low-level, nonviolent cartel workers like
  • López Obrado
  • paramilitarizing: Underground drug-smuggling syndi- cates hired trained soldiers and invested in arsenals and armored vehicles, evolving into far more powerful criminal militias like Los Zetas and the CJNG, which have a lot more than $2.5 billion to spend and easy access to a booming firearms black market, thanks to lax regulations in the U.S.
  • The idea was to crush the cartels by force, but it didn't work out that way.
  • When I ask how gasoline compares to narcotics, in terms of overall revenue to Los Zetas, he rubs his index fingers together. "Fifty-fifty," he says. "It's approximately as profitable as drugs."
  • She explains the arrangement as a sort of protection racket.
  • here farmworkers are forced to buy the gasoline whether they want it or not.
  • Much of the stolen fuel is offloaded at communal farms known as ejidos
  • Los Zetas designate a low-level police officer or traffic cop on the cartel's payroll to oversee a crew of huachicoleros, who get paid 500 to 1,000 pesos a day to do the dirty, dangerous work of tapping pipelines. That's about $40, a good wage for manual labor in Mexico, but if they commit an error, like losing gasoline to the military or accidentally starting a fire, the punishment is death.
  • order, and with a much broader market than illegal drugs. "Everybody needs gasoline," El Polkas says. "You're always going to have customers. Especially when it's cheap."
  • no need to smuggle the product across the increasingly militarized U.S. border
  • tapping pipelines directly.
  • hijackings of tanker trucks
  • Los Zetas began selling stolen gasoline around 2010
  • personally killed 32 people before he got out of Los Zetas
  • He was kept well supplied with weapons and ammunition as well as Buchanan's whiskey and large quantities of cocaine.
  • sicario, an assassin for Los Zetas,
  • But when it comes to the illegal trade of oil and gas, "there is no nuclear option."
  • of natural resources, with multiple criminal militias and a weak central state vying over mines, ports and oil fields. It's a dangerous escalation that only makes the cartels more entrenched because they no longer rely on a single income stream. "Theoretically, you could legalize drugs,"
  • drug war has morphed into a broader armed conflict for control of natural resources, with multiple criminal militias and a weak central state vying over mines, ports and oil fields. It's a dangerous escalation that only makes the cartels more entrenched because they no longer rely on a single income stream.
  • sin.
  • La Familia Michoacána has illegally exported millions of tons of iron ore from the Lázaro Cardenas port; the Los Rojos and Guerreros Unidos cartels prey on the Los Filos gold mine in Guerrero; and the Gulf Cartel is stealing natural gas from the Burgos Basi
  • Their weapons were real, but their uniforms and vehicle were counterfeit, "cloned," as Navarro puts it. "These guys were pure huachicoleros," he says. "They had just gotten done 'milking' a pipeline." It was the first time he'd seen Los Zetas dealing in stolen gasoline.
  • u
  • $11 billion in suspected fraud
  • $19 billion. That's how much Pemex has lost, on average, per year, since 2013.
  • $1.5 billion. That's the estimated amount of product huachicoleros are stealing annually
  • . Public anger at the price hikes occasionally boiled over into riots, and contributed to the election of López Obrador.
  • e isn't technically possible without assistance from Pemex insiders, who supply huachicoleros with maps of pipeline networks, tip-offs on when to expect fuel to be flowing, and the necessary tools and parts, including specialized valves.
  • thieves are currently making off with about 23,500 barrels of fuel every day.
  • "Pemex is a massive cash cow, riddled with corruption."
  • country's reserves of oil and gas represent a potential source of wealth far greater than illegal narcotics could ever yield.
  • CJNG, under its secretive leader, Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes, alias El Mencho, to be the most powerful drug cartel in Mexico
  • . Every few days mutilated bodies turn up in the Red Triangle towns of Acajete, Acatzingo, Quecholac, Tepeaca and Palmar de Bravo, the corpses beaten and dismembered, sometimes with their faces peeled off — a signature of the CJNG.
  • Jalisco New Generation Cartel, or CJNG, has been taking over
  • . Los Zetas used to control the Red Triangle
  • His gang doesn't have a name, and he doesn't belong to Los Zetas, the cartel that dominates this state, but once a month he pays a $10,000 tribute to steal gasoline
  • He says he has informants inside Pemex and has bought off the cops in all five municipalities around Orizaba.
  • every barrel of gasoline that huachicoleros steal, 10 barrels are stolen by high-level officials in Pemex and the government. "We need to punish the low-level huachicoleros," he says, "but also the white-collar huachi coleros up top."
  • onflict has as much to do with petroleum as it does with narcotics.
  • Black-market gasoline is now a billion- dollar economy, and free-standing gasoline mafias are gaining power in their own right, throwing a volatile accelerant onto the dirty mix of drugs and guns that has already killed some 200,000 Mexicans over the past dec ad
  • Mexico's drug-trafficking cartels have moved to monopolize all forms of crime, including fuel theft, muscling out smaller operators with paramilitary tactics honed in the drug war.
  • El Santo Niño Huachicol,
  • past, your typical huachicoleros were small bands of grimy outlaws, largely harmless Robin Hoods who operated quietly and earned the goodwill of the people by handing out free buckets of gasoline and sponsoring parades and festivals in poor villages.
  • huachicoleros
  • icolero
  • is gang of 25 fuel thieves rides around in five pickup trucks with 1,000- liter pallet tanks and a pile of tools, drilling illegal taps in underground pipelines. They sell the stolen product to taxi drivers, bus companies and long-haul truckers at a significant discount to the price at gas stations run by Petroleos Mexicanos, better known as Pemex, the national oil company. On a good day, he says, he can gross more than $10,000.
  • 32-year-old, but he's talking about murdering people. He tells me he's done it eight times and explains the sort of thing that, in his line of work, gets a person killed.
51 annotations
  • Some employers are already shifting policies. United Airlines gives customers the option to identify as nonbinary when booking tickets. Retirement company TIAA instructed employees to introduce themselves to clients with their preferred pronouns.
  • There is still not a lot of research quantifying this population, especially since there are so many diverse terms around gender identity. Two years ago, Herman's study found 27% of youth in California aged 12 to 17 said their peers would identify them as gender-nonconforming. Other studies show a much smaller prevalence of people who identify themselves as transgender or gender nonbinary.
  • "Employers are going to be faced with an increasing percentage of employees over time who have nonbinary identities,"
  • "I think people feel really intense about it ... like this is breaking some rule,"
  • The new employer had no problem with it and hired Byron. But being out at work meant fielding endless questions from colleagues: Is this really a thing? How can a plural pronoun refer to one person? Byron feels caught in the middle of a culture war.
  • "I had a very supportive friend group, and then I would go to work and not think about that part of myself,"
  • Byron, 24, came out as such to their inner circle of friends three years ago, requesting to be referred to as "they," not as "he." But they didn't feel comfortable doing so at work.
  • It wasn't until young adulthood that Byron first encountered the concept that someone could identify as something other than male or female. For Byron, the idea of being gender neutral — or part one, part the other — felt like it fit.
  • more workplaces are adapting to an increasing number of people openly identifying as gender nonbinary — that is, they don't consider themselves categorically male or female and favor gender-neutral pronouns like "they," instead of "he" or "she."
  • Last week, the Supreme Court heard arguments in cases testing whether people in that community are protected by the country's workplace anti-discrimination laws.
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  • en
  • What science has gotten wrong by ignoring women
  • I hope the world is different by then, I hope these aren’t issues anymore. But at the moment the world is in such turmoil I really don’t know. I hope we don’t go backward on this, that we manage to defend our rights and move things forward.
  • For example, in the early 20th century a leading reproductive biologist, Walter Heape, wrote that women were wasting their reproductive energy when they went out to fight for the vote. That goes to show that right from the beginning this was inherently political.
  • We have subtler forms of sexual repression too. I would argue that male guardianship is an example—this idea that you have to stay closeted away, and can’t do anything without the man in your life’s permission. Until recently women in Saudi Arabia couldn’t drive. That kind of control of a woman’s freedom is really at its heart a control of her sexual behavior, to make sure that she doesn’t transgress.
  • Her point was that if women are naturally chaste and modest, then why do we do things like FGM, which is such a brutal, incredibly violent act? It’s done on millions of women to stop them from having sex. There is no other purpose to it. Why do we need to do that if they’re naturally chaste? No one had made this observation before Hrdy came along.
  • what biological evidence exists to support it
  • There’s a widespread idea that women are somehow naturally chaste and modest and monogamous and men are naturally promiscuous.
  • And she was making a clear point that actually maybe there isn’t, which is the basis for a lot of work that’s been done since then. It’s very easy to jump to biological conclusions I think, but it’s quite lazy as well.
  • She faced a lot of harsh resistance to her ideas, partly because male biologists were so invested in the idea that there must be some biological basis to female inferiority
  • . This was in the early days of neurology and brain anatomy, when the assumption was that women had smaller brains, and so they were more stupid
  • And she came up with a very different conclusion: that women were naturally superior. I’m not saying she was right, but what she proved was that you can look at evidence in very different ways. And depending on your prejudices, depending on your point of view, you can come up with a different conclusion.
  • different conclusion.
  • she came up with a very different conclusion: that women were naturally superior. I’m not saying she was right, but what she proved was that you can look at evidence in very different ways. And depending on your prejudices, depending on your point of view, you can come up with a different con
  • She was very self-sufficient and independent. Like many women in the 19th century, she didn’t have the broadest education so she educated herself. She really tried to look at evolutionary theory and examine the evidence from a different point of view.
  • t Eliza Burt Gamble, the tough-as-nails schoolteacher and women's rights activist who took him on. Who was she, and how did she challenge his theories?
  • I think he just fell into a trap that a lot of people fell into—a trap of his time, and of accepting these cultural ideas about men and women and not challenging them.
  • he was so thorough and careful in his work, but on this issue, he seemed quite slapdash. He didn’t examine the reasons that women had fewer achievements. He didn’t think that it might be because women weren’t allowed to do anything, at least in Victorian England. Unless people have an even playing field it’s not fair to compare them, and that’s what he was doing.
  • In a letter he described women as the intellectual inferiors of men. He looked around at Victorian society and saw that women weren’t achieving as much as men, so his conclusion was that women just don’t have the same capacities and capabilities as men. That they had somehow under evolved.
  • For a lot of the history of modern science women were deliberately excluded.
  • She peeled back the layers of sexism within science and explained why biology and sexual repression have continued to keep women on the sidelines, and how a new wave of feminists and feminist thinking is shifting the discourse.
21 annotations
  • Most of the crew is is trans. Everyone who appears on screen is trans. So it really is a film about by and for trans folks. And we're so happy that folks who are not trans are also, you know, enjoying the film and and finding value in it.
  • There are so many nuances and things about the experiences of transness that if you are not trans, you just don't have or if you have not been in close proximity to a trans person and close relationship with — it makes a difference.
  • I played a sex worker seven different times, but I was able to find, at least in my mind as an artist, something human about her. I wanted to go back to the humor piece because I think it's so important for us to be able to laugh as marginalized people. We've found ways to laugh at the ridiculousness of discrimination in so many ways because you have to laugh or you would just sort of be devastated and angry ... all the time
  • We've often been stereotyped and stigmatized and pathologized and sensationalized in film. So we've always been there. But the way — just like depictions of blackness have always been, their depiction of folks along a gender spectrum have always existed in films. But representation that is authentic, that is about the real lived experiences of trans people have not always been there."
  • b
  • "Trans people have always been seen, but we've not always been represented, right? And in the being seen and being visible, we've often been misrepresented,"
  • Disclosure celebrates the long and complicated history of trans people in cinema, and takes a deep look into how some of that troubled past has shaped the current biases against a marginalized grou
  • "People traversing gender expectations was a part of cinema as early as 1914, there was a film that featured a sex change,"
8 annotations
  • 79 countries have both a needle and syringe program as well as opioid substitution therapy -- such as the use of methadone to treat opioid addiction -- and only four of those countries had high coverage for both kinds of intervention,
  • "We need ongoing improvement of prevention and treatment. It is there, but only a small proportion of people that need treatment get treatment. This has been an ongoing problem and it's still there,"
  • ea
  • only one out of six people with a drug disorder receives treatment
  • Many of the overdose deaths resulted from consuming fentanyl, a synthetic opioid that will likely become more pervasive worldwide
  • India has been a major supplier of tramadol,
  • Tramadol has has been linked to various terrorist networks in the Middle East and has been a cause of both increasing addiction and instability in Africa, the report says.
  • The report also found that women -- accounting for 33% of drug users -- consume far less than men. However, once women begin consuming, they are much more likely to become drug dependent than men, the report says.
  • hics. In the US, drug use among those 50 and older increased seven times between 1996 and 2016
  • drug use among older generations -- those age 40 and above -- is increasing at a faster rate than younger demographics.
  • Cannabis was the most widely used drug, with 192 million users, followed by opioids and amphetamines with 32 million users each, according to the report.
  • Around 275 million people worldwide aged 15-64 years used drugs at least once in 2016
  • "The real problematic issues for us have been the increase in opium production in Afghanistan and the massive increase in cocaine production, particularly because of Colombia,"
  • The remaining 60% of those deaths were attributable to the indirect use of drugs, such as HIV and Hepatitis C obtained from unsafe injections.
  • Globally, deaths from drug use reached an estimated 450,000 in 2015. Nearly 40% of those deaths resulted from the direct result of drug use -- primarily overdoses from opioids.
  • Non-medical use of prescription drugs, such as fentanyl, are also becoming a major threat to public health, increasingly contributing to overdose deaths, particularly in the United States.
16 annotations
  • UCR Program’s primary objective is to generate reliable information
  • Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted Program LEOKA LEOKA provides data and training that helps keep law enforcement officers by providing relevant, high quality, potentially lifesaving information to law enforcement agencies focusing on why an incident occurred as opposed to what occurred during the incident, with the hope of preventing future incidents
  • Victims: The types of victims collected for hate crime incidents include individuals (adults and juveniles), businesses, institutions, and society as a whole. Offenders: The number of offenders (adults and juveniles), and when possible, the race and ethnicity of the offender or offenders as a group. Location type: One of 46 location types can be designated. Hate crime by jurisdiction: Includes data about hate crimes by state and agency.
  • Incidents and offenses by bias motivation: Includes crimes committed by and against juveniles. Incidents may include one or more offense types.
  • The types of hate crimes reported to the FBI are broken down by specific categories. The aggregate hate crime data collected for each incident include the following:
  • Hate Crime Statistics Act, 28 U.S.C. § 534, on April 23, 1990.  This required the attorney general to collect data “about crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity.”
  • information on victims, known offenders, relationships between victims and offenders, arrestees, and property involved in the crimes
  • NIBRS is unique because it coll
  • collects data on crimes reported to the police, but also incidents where multiple crimes are committed, for example when a robbery escalates into a rape
  • The National Incident-Based Reporting System, or NIBRS, was created to improve the overall quality of crime data collected by law enforcement
  • The UCR Program consists of four data collections: The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), the Summary Reporting System (SRS), the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) Program, and the Hate Crime Statistics Program.
  • (FBI’s) Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) is the largest, most common data on crime currently available. The UCR lists the number of crimes that were reported to the police and the number of arrests made.
  • Official statistics are gathered from various criminal justice agencies, such as the police and courts, and represent the total number of crimes reported to the police or the number of arrests made by that agency.
13 annotations