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Robert Peters
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  • Wearables could address some of the limitations of other interventions by providing instant feedback and offer an individualistic approach while remaining practical [11,15]
  • s [16] a
  • , it is possible to identify the severity of depressive symptoms based on the number of conversations, amount of physical activity, and sleep duration using a wearable wristband and smartphone app [18,19].
  • There are also inconclusive results regarding home telemonitoring.
  • manufacturers utilise a range of digital persuasive techniques and social influence strategies to increase user engagement, including the gamification of activity with competitions and challenges, publication of visible feedback on performance utilising social influence principles, or reinforcements in the form of virtual rewards for achievements
  • positive habit formation
  • Sophisticated algorithms can now cross-reference wearable-generated biometric data with other “digital traces” of users’ behaviour. “Digital traces” of behaviour such as time of activity and user location can reveal a person’s identity [46]. Research on “digital traces” from other sources (e.g., social media) demonstrates that these can be alarmingly accurate when it comes to predicting personality [47] and risk-taking behaviours [48], two very individual and personal traits.
  • At present, wearables are more likely to be purchased by individuals who already lead a healthy lifestyle and want to quantify their progress
  • home telemonitoring
  • t 32% of users stop wearing these devices after six months, and 50% after one year
  • The next step will be to move from unsophisticated exploratory feedback to intelligent and personalised explanatory feedback [55].
  • However, interventions involving pedometers and smartphone apps across clinical populations show no evidence of continued behavioural change beyond the duration of the original intervention [29
  • several studies have observed that type 2 diabetics who self-monitored their own blood glucose concentration did not benefit from increased glycaemic control but rather found their disease more intrusive [35].
  • Reviews illustrating the effects of telemonitoring on clinical outcomes (e.g., a decrease in emergency visits, hospital admissions, and average hospital stay) are more favourable in pulmonary and cardiac patients than in those suffering from diabetes and hypertension [32,33]. However, a number of trials report no beneficial effect of self-monitoring on blood glucose [34], and several demonstrate negative outcomes, including elevated levels of depression [35]. Aspects such as quality of life, acceptability, and cost benefits are infrequently or incompletely reported in telemonitoring trials [33,36], and existing reviews of remote monitoring have frequently been criticised for their poor methodology [37].
  • in The New England Journal of Medicine, but in relation to smartphone health apps’ regulatory status in the US [52]
  • Behavioural scientists and interface designers have to be on board to facilitate and develop more personalised, intuitive, and user-friendly systems of behavioural engagement and feedback.
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