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Victor Brendy Ndukwe
31 articles
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  • The decision to build a single expansive dome, rather than individual pavilions, disassociated the architecture from the exhibition and created a more flexible architectural space
  • The design of the dome features a circle of twelve steel masts, one hundred meters high, which support a network of high-tensile cables. The seventy kilometers of cabling is covered by a canopy of white PTFE fabric just one millimeter thin, with an interior lining to absorb both sound and condensation. The Dome’s specifications are astonishing: it has a circumference of one kilometer, a height of fifty meters at its peak, and covers an area of eighty thousand square meters. In keeping with the festive spirit of the exhibition it housed, the architecture of the Dome was intended to convey a sense of optimism about the new millennium. As Davies recounted: “it’s no accident that those masts reach up at that angle like raised arms, and say ‘Yes!
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  • Thanks to the great degree of flexibility in its design, the dome has been successfully adapted for multiple uses since the closure of the Millennium Experience. In 2003 the Dome hosted a music festival organized by the Mayor of London as well as a Winter Wonderland festival. The following year, the charity Crisis made use of the dome as a shelter for the homeless over the Christmas period. In 2007, after a two-year period of development, the dome reopened as an entertainment center. Rebranded as The O2 (after a sponsorship deal with the telecommunication company of the same name), it has since been successfully used as a venue for concerts and sporting events, hosting gymnastics and basketball competitions during the London 2012 Olympics.
  • The Greenwich Meridian Line passes just meters away from the dome, and the design of the building contains many allusions to the concept of time. Davies, who describes himself as a “keen astronomer,”[4] specified that there should be twelve masts, one for each month of the year, and twenty-four ‘scallops’ (the curved cutouts at the base of the canopy), one for each hour of the day. Furthermore, the dome has a diameter of 365 meters, representing each day of the year, and the panels of the canopy are based on the celestial lines of longitude and latitude. These time-based references are particularly appropriate given the project’s purpose of celebrating a significant calendar event.
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  • In an extraordinary feat of architecture and engineering, the vast dome, whose canopy encompasses a volume of 2.2million cubic meters, sped from initial concept design to topping out in only two years.
  • A dome structure was chosen as the most appropriate design solution to the brief, largely due to the strict time constraints imposed on the project. It was only in 1996—comparatively late for a project of this scale—that the Greenwich peninsula was chosen as the site for the festival, and it was essential that all construction work be completed in 1998 in order to allow sufficient time for the exhibitions to be installed by the turn of the millennium. Rather than creating separate pavilions for each of the exhibitions which would make up the Millennium Experience, it was more time-efficient and cost-effective to create a single enclosure to house them all
  • Sustainability was a key consideration in the design of the dome, with great care taken to minimize the environmental impact of the building. Rainwater runoff from the roof is collected into pools, naturally filtered through reed beds, and recycled as grey water for the toilets. The translucent fabric of the canopy allows sunlight to enter the Dome, thereby reducing the need for interior lighting and lowering the energy demands of the building.[5] Any energy which is needed comes from renewable sources, namely household waste, sewage and wind.[6] The dome is also naturally ventilated, with openings at the center of the roof releasing the rising hot air and twelve fans drawing in cool air from outside.
  • In an extraordinary feat
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  • y reducing your calorie intake, all of these methods should cause weight loss as long as you don't compensate by eating much more during the eating periods.
  • g your calorie intake, all of these methods should cause weight loss as long as you don't compensate by eating much more during the eating periods.Many people find the 16/8 method to be the simplest, most sustainable and easiest to stick to. It’s also the most popular.Summary There are several different ways to do intermittent fasting. All of them split the day or week into eating and fasting periods.How It Affects Your Cells and HormonesWhen you fast, several things happen in your body on the cellular and molecular level.For example, your body adjusts hormone levels to make stored body fat more accessible.Your cells also initiate important repair processes and change the expression of genes.Here are some changes that occur in your body when you fast:Human Growth Hormone (HGH): The levels of growth hormone skyrocket, increasing as much as 5-fold. This has benefits for fat loss and muscle gain, to name a few (4, 5, 6, 7). Insulin: Insulin sensitivity improves and levels of insulin drop dramatically. Lower insulin levels make stored body fat more accessible (8). Cellular repair: When fasted, your cells initiate cellular repair processes. This includes autophagy, where cells digest and remove old and dysfunctional proteins that build up inside cells (9, 10) Gene expression: There are changes in the function of genes related to longevity and protection against disease (11, 12). These changes in hormone levels, cell function and gene expression are responsible for the health benefits of intermittent fasting.Summary When you fast, human growth hormone levels go up and insulin levels go down. Your body’s cells also change the expression of genes and initiate important cellular repair processes.A Very Powerful Weight Loss ToolWeight loss is the most common reason for people to try intermittent fasting (13).By making you eat fewer meals, intermittent fasting can lead to an automatic reduction in calorie intake.Additionally, intermittent fasting changes hormone levels to facilitate weight loss.In addition to lowering insulin and increasing growth hormone levels, it increases the release of the fat burning hormone norepinephrine (noradrenaline).Because of these changes in hormones, short-term fasting may increase your metabolic rate by 3.6–14% (14, 15).By helping you eat fewer and burn more calories, intermittent fasting causes weight loss by changing both sides of the calorie equation.Studies show that intermittent fasting can be a very powerful weight loss tool.A 2014 review study found that this eating pattern can cause 3–8% weight loss over 3–24 weeks, which is a significant amount, compared to most weight loss studies (1).According to the same study, people also lost 4–7% of their waist circumference, indicating a significant loss of harmful belly fat that builds up around your organs and causes disease (1).Another study showed that intermittent fasting causes less muscle loss than the more standard method of continuous calorie restriction (16).However, keep in mind that the main reason for its success is that intermittent fasting helps you eat fewer calories overall. If you binge and eat massive amounts during your eating periods, you may not lose any weight at all.Summary Intermittent fasting may slightly boost metabolism while helping you eat fewer calories. It’s a very effective way to lose weight and belly fat.Health BenefitsMany studies have been done on intermittent fasting, in both animals and humans.These studies have shown that it can have powerful benefits for weight control and the health of your body and brain. It may even help you live longer.Here are the main health benefits of intermittent fasting:Weight loss: As mentioned above, intermittent fasting can help you lose weight and belly fat, without having to consciously restrict calories (1, 13). Insulin resistance: Intermittent fasting can reduce insulin resistance, lowering blood sugar by 3–6% and fasting insulin levels by 20–31%, which should protect against type 2 diabetes (1). Inflammation: Some studies show reductions in markers of inflammation, a key driver of many chronic diseases (17, 18, 19). Heart health: Intermittent fasting may reduce “bad” LDL cholesterol, blood triglycerides, inflammatory markers, blood sugar and insulin resistance — all risk factors for heart disease (1, 20, 21). Cancer: Animal studies suggest that intermittent fasting may prevent cancer (22, 23, 24, 25). Brain health: Intermittent fasting increases the brain hormone BDNF and may aid the growth of new nerve cells. It may also protect against Alzheimer’s disease (26, 27, 28, 29). Anti-aging: Intermittent fasting can extend lifespan in rats. Studies showed that fasted rats lived 36–83% longer (30, 31). Keep in mind that research is still in its early stages. Many of the studies were small, short-term or conducted in animals. Many questions have yet to be answered in higher quality human studies (32).Summary Intermittent fasting can have many benefits for your body and brain. It can cause weight loss and may reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer. It may also help you live longer.Makes Your Healthy Lifestyle SimplerEating healthy is simple, but it can be incredibly hard to maintain.One of the main obstacles is all the work required to plan for and cook healthy meals.Intermittent fasting can make things easier, as you don't need to plan, cook or clean up after as many meals as before.For this reason, intermittent fasting is very popular among the life-hacking crowd, as it improves your health while simplifying your life at the same time.Summary One of the major benefits of intermittent fasting is that it makes healthy eating simpler. There are fewer meals you need to prepare, cook and clean up after.Who Should Be Careful Or Avoid It?Intermittent fasting is certainly not for everyone.If you’re underweight or have a history of eating disorders, you should not fast without consulting with a health professional first.In these cases, it can be downright harmful.Should Women Fast?There is some evidence that intermittent fasting may not be as beneficial for women as it is for men.For example, one study showed that it improved insulin sensitivity in men, but worsened blood sugar control in women (33).Though human studies on this topic are unavailable, studies in rats have found that intermittent fasting can make female rats emaciated, masculinized, infertile and cause them to miss cycles (34, 35).There are a number of anecdotal reports of women whose menstrual period stopped when they started doing IF and went back to normal when they resumed their previous eating pattern.For these reasons, women should be careful with intermittent fasting.They should follow separate guidelines, like easing into the practice and stopping immediately if they have any problems like amenorrhea (absence of menstruation).If you have issues with fertility and/or are trying to conceive, consider holding off on intermittent fasting for now. This eating pattern is likely also a bad idea if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding.Summary People who are underweight or have a history of eating disorders should not fast. There is also some evidence that intermittent fasting may be harmful to some women.Safety and Side EffectsHunger is the main side effect of intermittent fasting.You may also feel weak and your brain may not perform as well as you're used to.This may only be temporary, as it can take some time for your body to adapt to the new meal schedule.If you have a medical condition, you should consult with your doctor before trying intermittent fasting.This is particularly important if you:Have diabetes.Have problems with blood sugar regulation.Have low blood pressure.Take medications.Are underweight.Have a history of eating disorders.Are a woman who is trying to conceive.Are a woman with a history of amenorrhea.Are pregnant or breastfeeding.All that being said, intermittent fasting has an outstanding safety profile. There is nothing dangerous about not eating for a while if you’re healthy and well-nourished overall.Summary The most common side effect of intermittent fasting is hunger. People with certain medical conditions should not fast without consulting with a doctor first. Frequently Asked QuestionsHere are answers to the most common questions about intermittent fasting.1. Can I Drink Liquids During the Fast?Yes. Water, coffee, tea and other non-caloric beverages are fine. Do not add sugar to your coffee. Small amounts of milk or cream may be okay.Coffee can be particularly beneficial during a fast, as it can blunt hunger.2. Isn't It Unhealthy to Skip Breakfast?No. The problem is that most stereotypical breakfast skippers have unhealthy lifestyles. If you make sure to eat healthy food for the rest of the day then the practice is perfectly healthy.3. Can I Take Supplements While Fasting?Yes. However, keep in mind that some supplements like fat-soluble vitamins may work better when taken with meals.4. Can I Work out While Fasted?Yes, fasted workouts are fine. Some people recommend taking branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) before a fasted workout.You can find many BCAA products on Amazon.5. Will Fasting Cause Muscle Loss?All weight loss methods can cause muscle loss, which is why it’s important to lift weights and keep your protein intake high. One study showed that intermittent fasting causes less muscle loss than regular calorie restriction (16).6. Will Fasting Slow Down My Metabolism?No. Studies show that short-term fasts actually boost metabolism (14, 15). However, longer fasts of 3 or more days can suppress metabolism (36).7. Should Kids Fast?Allowing your child to fast is probably a bad idea.Getting StartedChances are that you've already done many intermittent fasts in your life.If you've ever eaten dinner, then slept late and not eaten until lunch the next day, then you've probably already fasted for 16+ hours.Some people instinctively eat this way. They simply don't feel hungry in the morning.Many people consider the 16/8 method the simplest and most sustainable way of intermittent fasting — you might want to try this practice first.If you find it easy and feel good during the fast, then maybe try moving on to more advanced fasts like 24-hour fasts 1–2 times per week (Eat-Stop-Eat) or only eating 500–600 calories 1–2 days per week (5:2 diet).Another approach is to simply fast whenever it’s convenient — simply skip meals from time to time when you're not hungry or don't have time to cook.There is no need to follow a structured intermittent fasting plan to derive at least some of the benefits.Experiment with the different approaches and find something that you enjoy and fits your schedule.Summary It’s recommended to start with the 16/8 method, then perhaps later move on to longer fasts. It’s important to experiment and find a method that works for you.Should You Try It?Intermittent fasting is not something that anyone needs to do.It’s simply one of many lifestyle strategies that can improve your health. Eating real food, exercising and taking care of your sleep are still the most important factors to focus on.If you don't like the idea of fasting, then you can safely ignore this article and continue to do what works for you.At the end of the day, there is no one-size-fits-all solution when it comes to nutrition. The best diet for you is the one you can stick to in the long run.Intermittent fasting is great for some people, not others. The only way to find out which group you belong to is to try it out.If you feel good when fasting and find it to be a sustainable way of eating, it can be a very powerful tool to lose weight and improve your health.Healthline and our partners may receive a portion of the revenues if you make a purchase using a link above.Read the article in SpanishFEEDBACK: Written by Kris Gunnars, BSc on July 25, 2018related stories6 Popular Ways to Do Intermittent FastingHow to Lose Weight Fast: 3 Simple Steps, Based on ScienceHow Many Calories Should You Eat Per Day to Lose Weight?Time-Restricted Eating: A Beginner's Guide11 Myths About Fasting and Meal FrequencyMediterranean Diet 101: A Meal Plan and Beginner's Guide
  • Intermittent fasting can have many benefits for your body and brain. It can cause weight loss and may reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer. It may also help you live longer.
  • nsate by eating much more during the eating periods.
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  • In addition to prestressing, in some cases poststressing is also required. Considering that material under the influence of prestressing elongates, there is a reduction in the prestressing force which requires additional stress. The self-weight of the tensile structure, as we have already mentioned, is exceedingly small, and as such does not have a great influence on the structural calculations.
  • The wind has a much more complicated effect, in part due to its dynamic nature, and in part due to the curvature of the structure. That is why for the calculation of wind load, we often use scaled models which are tested in wind tunnels or numerical models which are tested using the CFD (computational fluid dynamic) analysis.
  • All forms of tensile structures can further be divided into four subcategories: hyperbolic paraboloids, cone forms, wave forms and forms with a supporting arch. However, the most widely used are hyperbolic paraboloids and cone forms
  • The form of the tensile structure also depends on the external load, since it is significantly deformed under its influence.
  • When calculating tensile structures, special attention is paid to the boundaries which the internal forces need to be in under the influence of any kind of external load. Internal forces need to remain tension forces and cannot in any case become compression forces, so their allowed minimum is 0 kN.
  • The role of the protective layers is to protect the load-bearing layer from the influence of the sun, from the chemicals in the atmosphere, and to ensure the waterproof nature of the membrane. Due to its structure, the membrane materials are not transparent, but they are translucent. The amount of filtered light depends on the type of material. One of the greatest problems of membrane materials is their difficulty to connect due to their extensive number of layers. Any connections are established through welding or high frequency welding. These connections are numerous in every structure, and they must exist in order for us to obtain a double curved form from planar material parts.
  • The form and the applied structural material have a decisive influence on the appearance and functionality of the structure.
  • The influence of seismic forces is very small, precisely because of the light weight of the structure itself. The point loads sometimes have an effect on the tensile structure and have to be included in the calculation. They can occur as incident loads, as dead loads or as live loads.
  • The spatial arrangement of the supports has the greatest influence on the final form of the structure.
  • The form of the tensile structure is obtained as a result of a parametric process [2], and depends on prestressing and boundary conditions
  • First and foremost, an increase in the curvature of the structure has a positive influence on the decrease in the maximum deflection under external load. The increase in the shearing modulus also decreases the maximum deflection. The increase in the curvature and the shearing modulus also leads to the reduction in the membrane forces under external load. The same effect on the force and deflection is achieved through the increase in the elasticity modulus. It is also noticeable that in the case of the increase in the curvature, significant differences occur by the ratio between the height and length of the side of 0.5. A further increase is used to achieve a very small decrease in force and the deformation, but the structure loses its functionality due to excessive height and curvature. We can thus conclude that 0.5 is the optimum relation between the height and length of the side in the case of the hyperbolic paraboloid.
  • The types of support can be rigid or elastic, where the rigid kind allows smaller deflection under the influence of external load.
  • Tensile structures are exposed to the effects of both external loading and prestressing. The prestressing that they are exposed to is of significant intensity and is not negligible. The usual value of prestressing is 1 to 6% of the maximum tensile force which the material can withstand
  • The boundary conditions include geometry and the type of supports used in the structure
  • An evaluation of the state of the structure is carried out by measuring the intensity of the forces in the structure and the evaluation of the damage to the material. These evaluations should be carried out relatively frequently, at least once a year. In this way, we provide the maximum life span, but also the safety of the structure. In addition to meeting the force level criterion, it is important to meet the requirement of the maximum deformation
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  • Sure, studies of intermittent fasting so far suggest it can help you lose weight over the course of a few months—but we don’t have the long-term data to determine whether you’ll be able to keep it off years later, or whether prolonged intermittent fasting is even safe or healthy, Cox says. She encourages anyone considering intermittent fasting to talk to their doctor, but “especially if they want to continue it on a long-term basis to make sure that’s the best option for them.”
  • You absolutely shouldn’t fast if you’re susceptible to developing an eating disorder. Risk factors include having a family member with an eating disorder, perfectionism, impulsivity and mood instability, Steiger says. Dietary restriction can cause eating disorders in people with these risk factors, he adds, and studies have associated fasting with a higher risk of bulimiain particular.
  • You might feel tired.
  • During fasting periods, avoid looking at, smelling, or even thinking about food, which can trigger the release of gastric acid into your stomach and make you feel hungry, says Yuan-Xiang Pan, an associate professor of nutrition at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He suggests reading a book or engaging in some other mentally engaging activity— “so that you’re not sitting in front of TV thinking, ‘Man I want to eat something.’” If you really need to fill your stomach, drink water, or plain iced tea or coffee, he says.
  • You might get dehydrated.
  • “The same biochemistry that regulates mood also regulates appetite,” Steiger says, with nutrient consumption affecting the activity of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, which play a role in anxiety and depression. That means dysregulating your appetite may do the same to your mood. Again, stick to a nutritionally balanced, satiating diet during your eating periods, and remember to clock in enough sleep, which research has also linked to mood.
  • You should avoid fasting altogether, though, if you have higher caloric needs—that is, if you’re underweight, younger than 18, or pregnant or breastfeeding, the other experts we interviewed said. Also avoid fasting if you have diabetes, since fasting could cause your blood sugar to plummet to dangerously low levels.
  • If you’re a stress eater, try activities that lower cortisol, like meditating or listening to music. Also remember to fill up on nutritious, satiating foods during eating periods.
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  • There are three different main classifications in the field of tensile construction systems: membrane tensioned structures, mesh tensioned, and pneumatic structures. The first relates to structures in which a membrane is held by cables, allowing the distribution of the tensile stresses through its own form. The second case corresponds to structures in which a mesh of cables carries the intrinsic forces, transmitting them to separate elements, for example, sheets of glass or wood. In the third case, a protective membrane is supported by means of air pressure.
  • In this system, there are two types of support: direct and indirect. The direct supports are those in which the construction is arranged directly on the rest of the building structure, while the second case is arranged from a raised point such as a mast. The cables, which are responsible for the distribution of the tensile stresses and the hardening of the canvasses, are classified in one of two ways according to the action which they perform: load-bearing and stabilizing. Both types of cable cross orthogonally, ensuring strength in two directions and avoiding deformations. The load-bearing cables are those that directly receive the external loads, fixed at the highest points. On the other hand, the stabilizing cables are responsible for strengthening the load-bearing cables and cross the load-bearing cables orthogonally. It is possible to avoid attaching the stabilizing cables to the ground by using a peripheral fixation cable.
  • The instability caused in previous models by the application of interlaced cables and very light covers, resulting in structural deficiencies, was solved during the middle of the last century. This was done thanks to a system of steel cables and fiber membranes with a high degree of strength, together with layers of waterproof coatings, giving protection against ultraviolet rays, fungus, fire, and allowing greater or less translucency and reflectivity.
  • Tensile structure is the term usually used to refer to the construction of roofs using a membrane held in place on steel cables. Their main characteristics are the way in which they work under stress tensile, their ease of pre-fabrication, their ability to cover large spans, and their malleability
  • Structurally, the system is formalized by combining three elements: membranes, rigid structures such as pole and masts, and cables.
  • Structurally, the system is formalized by combining three elements: membranes, rigid structures such as pole and masts, and cables.The membranes of PVC-coated polyester fibers have greater ease in factory production and installation; lower cost; and medium durability—around 10 years. 
  • The low cost of mass production and the demand for systems capable of adapting to the most varied terrains with large spans, such as circus tents for example, encouraged the development of the technique.
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  • a few years after installation.     If the humidity levels are high, the deterioration in appearance can be even worse, as black mould growth can occur within the fibres soon after the coating breaks down. The fabrics with PVDF/acrylicalloy coatings are the most commonly used, and have now been in service about 25 years.    The PVDF/acrylic coating is heat fused onto the base fabric as part of the manufacturing process.    The top surface of the fabric has a smooth slippery feel to it, and it is thus very effective in repelling dirt and resisting mould growth. Useful lives of 15 – 25 years are achieved with these fabrics, with the anticipated life being directly proportional to the amount of PVDF in the top coating. PTFE / Fibreglass fabric – properties & characteristics The first outdoor PTFE/fibreglass structure was erected in California, USA40 years ago and is still performing well in service.    It is therefore likely that structures which are made with today’s PTFE/fibreglass fabrics will achieve useful lives in excess of 50 years.PTFE/fibreglass fabric is very effective in repelling dirt and some structures which have been inspected after years in service have perfectly clean surfaces even though they have never had cleaning maintenance. Three of the new stadiums built for the Soccer World Cup in South Africa in 2010 had PTFE/fibreglass roofs, but the main disadvantage of PTFE fabric is its high cost – the overall cost of structures using this fabric are almost twice that of PVC structures. Light and heat transmission One of the main advantages of fabric is its translucent properties – on average, architectural fabrics transmit about 13% of the light falling on the top surface.    This results in a very pleasant light and airy feel to the space below, and can also result in significant cost savings on lighting. Fabric is also very effective in reducing the transmission of radiant heat from the sun, and it is a material which has been significantly underutilised in the climatic conditions prevailing in South Africa.   However, global warming is likely to result in increased usage of tensilefabric structures in future. Lighting of fabric Lighting is very effective in emphasising the aesthetic appearance of fabric structures and should always be included whenever possible.   Both back-lighting and front lighting can be used depending on the effect that is desired. Fabric and fire PVC has fire retardant properties, and achieves a class 2 fire rating – meaning that the fabric is self-extinguishing and does not produce drips of molten fabric.    This fire rating is generally accepted by most approval authorities for use as a roof enclosure. PVC has an added advantage in a fire situation in that the fabric seams will separate at about 100ºC, thus allowing the very early venting of toxic fumes and smoke. This is a major advantage in saving lives of people who may be trapped in the building. Cleaning fabric Fabric is easy to clean and can be done using similar methods to those that one would use to clean a car, i.e. soft brushes, light duty, non-acidic detergents and copious rinsing water. Personnel can access the fabric by means of ropes and use soft soled shoes to walk on the fabric. Structural materials – choices for tensile structures All the usual structural materials (steel, concrete, aluminium, composites, etc.) have been used for tensile structures, but generally the emphasis is on the achievement of a minimalist appearance for the supporting structures. As steel has the highest strength and stiffness values, and is also relatively cheap, it is the most commonly used material. Tensile systems – design & materials The choice and design of the tensile systems is one of the most important aspects of tensile fabric structures. A variety of materials and coatings are available, ranging from marine grade 316 stainless steel, through hot-dip galvanised steel, to simple painted steel. The particular environment in which the structure is sited is of prime importance in selecting the materials to be used, because the tensile components are generally fully exposed to the vagaries of the weather. Unfortunately, there are numerous examples of inadequately specified materials being used for short term cost benefits. The design and selection of tensile connections is an area which requires specialist expertise and this work should not be undertaken without adequate engineering experience and knowledge.The main aspect of the design which requires careful attention is the secondary effects – these often have a major bearing on the performance of the components in practice.  Local wind load effects, eccentricities, unequal load sharing in multiple connections, angular discontinuities (resulting in bending stresses), fatigue loading, etc. need to be taken account of. The visual impact of these connections on the overall appearance of the structure is significant and due attention needs to be given to ensuring that they contribute to enhancing the inherent aesthetic appeal of tensile structures. TENSION STRUCTURES From conception to breathtaking structures Leading fabric structure engineers,Tension Structures, transform the skyline with a multitude of tensile structures that revolutionise architecture. Operating throughout Africa, the Middle East and Mauritius, Tension Structures work with integrity to create aesthetically pleasing structures that are safe and sound in today’s world of turbulent climate change. Conception Tension Structures engineers work hand in hand with architects and designers to develop a design concept into a photo realistic 3-D model for complete visualisation. This ensures that designs not only meet aesthetic intent, but are structurally stable and functional. All projects are signed off by professional engineers who specialise exclusively in the design of tensile structures.The end result is a set of all inclusive design drawings, from foundations to steel and cable elements and finally fabric. Manufacturing Tension Structures only use fabric from the best international manufacturers.  These fabrics allow for control of light intensities, provide wind, rain and solar protection and also have appropriate fire retardant proprieties. Endless fabric forms are possible.  The backbone of these structures comes from structural steel and cable systems, with cables and fittings usually being made from marine grade 316 Stainless Steel to ensure the longest possible lifespan.Steelwork components are manufactured from hot-dip galvanised steel, coated with two-part epoxy coat paint to combat the corrosive environments which exist around the coast, and in polluted urban situations.Tension Structures take great care to ensure that the designs of steel and cable connections are cost effective, aesthetically pleasing and functional. Fruition Following a rigorously planned installation process, using stringent quality control and safety measures, the majestic structure unfurls into a multifaceted and functional masterpiece.  The tensile structure transforms the architecture and elongates and elevates the walls into the space beyond. Entrust your fabric architecture to the expertise of the Tension Structures team and work with us to create magic. If you would like any further information, please contact us. www.tensionstructures.co.za | info@tensionstructures.co.za | +27 21 794 1898 /* custom css */ .td_uid_4_5cfa5b34e5394_rand.td-a-rec-img { text-align: left; } .td_uid_4_5cfa5b34e5394_rand.td-a-rec-img img { margin: 0 auto 0 0; } (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Robert Barneshttps://constructionreviewonline.com LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Please enter your comment! Please enter your name here You have entered an incorrect email address! 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  • The choice and design of the tensile systems is one of the most important aspects of tensile fabric structures. A variety of materials and coatings are available, ranging from marine grade 316 stainless steel, through hot-dip galvanised steel, to simple painted steel. The particular environment in which the structure is sited is of prime importance in selecting the materials to be used, because the tensile components are generally fully exposed to the vagaries of the weather.
  • Local wind load effects, eccentricities, unequal load sharing in multiple connections, angular discontinuities (resulting in bending stresses), fatigue loading, etc. need to be taken account of. The visual impact of these connections on the overall appearance of the structure is significant and due attention needs to be given to ensuring that they contribute to enhancing the inherent aesthetic appeal of tensile structures.
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  • because they not only provide the fabric with some of its UV resistance, but they also vastly improve its self-cleaning characteristics.
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 business operations 558
  • It was subsequently rebranded the O2 in 2005 and re-opened to the public in 2007, containing the O2 Arena, the busiest music arena in the world. It was also the venue for the gymnastics during the London 2012 Olympics.
  • The Dome formed part of a ‘watercycle’. Rain water from the Dome roof was collected, filtered through reed beds in the landscape and used to flush the toilets. Waste from the toilets was then dried and burned to produce electricity which was used to power the Dome.
  • The Millennium Dome was the first major visitor attraction in the world not to have a car park. It was serviced instead by a new Jubilee line station, bus services and river ferries.
  • At 320m in diameter, the dome is the largest single enclosed space in the world. It was constructed by McAlpine/Laing Joint Venture (MLJV), a joint venture formed between Sir Robert McAlpine and Laing Management. The Dome is neither a true dome, nor a conventional fabric structure, it is a cable net structure, clad with flat fabric panels. The Dome is 52m at its peak, is supported by 12 masts 100m high and 72km of cables. It includes a large cut out section that accommodates a ventilation shaft from the Blackwall Tunnel. The Dome fabric is a PTFE coated glass fibre fabric. There are in fact two layers of fabric, in order to provide some insulation between the inside and outside and to reduce the likelihood of condensation.
  • The Millennium Dome (known as 'the Dome') is a fabric clad, cable net structure in Greenwich, London. It opened in 2000 as the centrepiece of the UK’s millennium celebrations, which ran from 31 December 1999 to 31 December 2000.
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  • One of the main benefits comes from reducing insulin, but there are also increases in nor-adrenalin, cortisol, and growth hormone.
  • HGH deficiency in adults leads to higher levels of body fat, lower lean body mass (sarcopenia) and decreased bone mass (osteopenia).
  • This is also the reason why hunger is lowest first thing in the morning (8 am) even though you have not eaten for 12 hours or so.
  • HGH along with cortisol and adrenalin increases blood glucose by breaking down glycogen – so it counters the effect of insulin, hence its name.
  • These hormones are typically secreted in a pulse just before waking (4 am or so) during the ‘counter-regulatory surge’. This is normal and is meant to get the body ready for the upcoming day by pushing some glucose out of storage and into the blood where it is available for energy.
  • This HGH is crucial in the maintenance of lean mass – both muscle and bone. One of the major concerns about fasting is the loss of lean mass. Some people claim that fasting a single day causes loss of ¼ pound of muscle. Studies prove that this does not occur. In fact, the opposite can happen. In comparing caloric reduction diets to fasting, the fasting was 4 times better at preserving lean mass! Think about this for a second.
  • we start to burn the stored food (fat stores) instead of burning precious muscle. Some protein is catabolized for gluconeogenesis, but the increase in HGH maintains lean mass during fasting.
  • This is called ‘training in the fasted state’. Increased nor-adrenalin from fasting will pump you up to train harder. At the same time, the elevated HGH stimulated by fasting should increase muscle mass and make recovery from a workout easier and faster.
  • Rather, fasting has the potential to unleash the anti-aging properties of HGH without any of the problems of excessive HGH (prostate cancer, increased blood sugar, increased blood pressure). For those interested in athletic performance, the benefits are even greater.
  • concerns about fasting is the loss of lean mass. Some people claim that fasting a single day causes loss of ¼ pound of muscle. Studies prove that this does not occur. In fact, the opposite can happen. In comparing caloric reduction diets to fasting, the fasting was 4 times better at preserving lean mass! Think about this for a second. Let’s imagine that we are living in Paleolithic times. During the summer of plenty, we eat lots of food and store some of tha
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  • In addition, there's a strong biological push to overeat following fasting periods. Your appetite hormones and hunger center in your brain go into overdrive when you are deprived of food
  • "It's human nature for people to want to reward themselves after doing very hard work, such as exercise or fasting for a long period of time, so there is a danger of indulging in unhealthy dietary habits on non-fasting days,
  • iet psychology for some people, says Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital. "One of my patients felt strongly that he didn't want to be bothered with tracking calories and filling out food records. Instead, he opted for a 5:2 fasting approach, which has worked well for him so far." The main goal is to develop a healthy eating pattern that is sustainable and can support weight loss over time, McManus says. As of now, intermittent dieting has not been proved to meet this key criteri
  • diet psychology for some people, says Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital. "One of my patients felt strongly that he didn't want to be bothered with tracking calories and filling out food records. Instead, he opted for a 5:2 fasting approach, which has worked well for him so far." The main goal is to develop a healthy eating pattern that is sustainable and can support weight loss over time, McManus says. As of now, intermittent dieting has not been proved to meet this key criterion.
  • diet psychology for some people, says Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital. "One of my patients felt strongly that he didn't want to be bothered with tracking calories and filling out food records. Instead, he opted for a 5:2 fasting approach, which has worked well for him so far." The main goal is to develop a healthy eating pattern that is sustainable and can support weight loss over time, McManus says. As of now, intermittent dieting has not been proved to meet this key criterion.
  • diet psychology for some people, says Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital. "One of my patients felt strongly that he didn't want to be bothered with tracking calories and filling out food records. Instead, he opted for a 5:2 fasting approach, which has worked well for him so far." The main goal is to develop a healthy eating pattern that is sustainable and can support weight loss over time, McManus says. As of now, intermittent dieting has not been proved to meet this key criterion.
  • But intermittent fasting may have a beneficial effect on diet psychology for some people, says Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital. "One of my patients felt strongly that he didn't want to be bothered with tracking calories and filling out food records. Instead, he opted for a 5:2 fasting approach, which has worked well for him so far."
  • iet psychology for some people, says Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital. "One of my patients felt strongly that he didn't want to be bothered with tracking calories and filling out food records. Instead, he opted for a 5:2 fasting approach, which has worked well for him so far." The main goal is to develop a healthy eating pattern that is sustainable and can support weight loss over time, McManus says. As of now, intermittent dieting has not been proved to meet this key criterion.
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  • diet psychology for some people, says Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital. "One of my patients felt strongly that he didn't want to be bothered with tracking calories and filling out food records. Instead, he opted for a 5:2 fasting approach, which has worked well for him so far." The main goal is to develop a healthy eating pattern that is sustainable and can support weight loss over time, McManus says. As of now, intermittent dieting has not been proved to meet this key criterion
  • iet psychology for some people, says Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital. "One of my patients felt strongly that he didn't want to be bothered with tracking calories and filling out food records. Instead, he opted for a 5:2 fasting approach, which has worked well for him so far." The main goal is to develop a healthy eating pattern that is sustainable and can support weight loss over time, McManus says. As of now, intermittent dieting has not been proved to meet this key criter
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