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五个问题,快速了解《逃犯条例》争议

Why Are People Protesting in Hong Kong?

MIKE IVES
周日,数十万人在香港举行抗议活动,反对政府允许将犯罪嫌疑人引渡到中国大陆的计划。
周日,数十万人在香港举行抗议活动,反对政府允许将犯罪嫌疑人引渡到中国大陆的计划。 Lam Yik Fei for The New York Times
HONG KONG — Hundreds of thousands protested in Hong Kong on Sunday against a government plan that would allow extraditions to mainland China.
The mass demonstration was among the largest in Hong Kong’s history, and another sign of rising fear and anger over the erosion of the civil liberties that have long set the semiautonomous city apart from the Chinese mainland.
这是香港历史上规模最大的示威活动之一,也是人们对公民自由受到侵蚀的担忧和愤怒上升的又一迹象。长期以来,公民自由一直是这座半自治城市与中国大陆的一大区别。
The relationship between Hong Kong and the central government in Beijing is complicated and evolving. Here’s the key background.
香港与北京中央政府的关系是复杂的、不断演变的。以下是重要的背景。
Is Hong Kong part of China?
香港是中国的一部分吗?

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Yes, but it’s not that simple.
是的,但事情没那么简单。
Hong Kong, a former British colony, was returned to China in 1997 under a policy known as “one country, two systems,” which promised the territory a high degree of autonomy. The policy has helped preserve Hong Kong’s civil service, independent courts, freewheeling press, open internet and other features that distinguish it from the Chinese mainland.
香港曾是英国殖民地,1997年根据“一国两制”政策回归中国,它保证香港享有高度自治。这项政策使香港得以保留其公务员制度、独立的法院、自由的媒体、开放的互联网以及其他与中国大陆不同的特点。
But that autonomy, guaranteed under a mini-constitution known as the Basic Law, expires in 2047. Well before Hong Kong is set to lose its unique status, however, the Basic Law has been weakened as China’s Communist Party increasingly meddles in Hong Kong’s affairs — for example, by abducting booksellers and a Chinese-born billionaire.
这种受到名为《基本法》的小型宪法保障的自治,将于2047年到期。在香港即将失去其独特地位之前,由于中国共产党越来越多地干预香港事务——例如绑架书商一名出生在中国大陆的亿万富翁——《基本法》已被削弱。
Why is Beijing meddling in Hong Kong?
北京为什么要干预香港?
The pressure reflects a broader tightening of controls across China under President Xi Jinping, who came to power in 2012 and has pursued critics with increasing boldness.
2012年上台的中国国家主席习近平,以越来越大的力度镇压批评者,香港的压力反映出,在习近平领导下,中国各地都在加大控制力度。
Hong Kong is an obvious target because it has a vocal community of pro-democracy activists and lawmakers. Tens of thousands took part in a movement demanding free elections that seized control of downtown streets for 11 weeks in late 2014, and large crowds attend an annual vigil that commemorates Beijing’s 1989 crackdown on Tiananmen Square.
香港是一个明确的目标,因为它有一个由亲民主活动人士和议员组成的声势浩大的群体。2014年底,数以万计的民众参加了一场要求自由选举的运动,占领市中心街道长达11周。此外,还有大批人士参加一年一度的守夜活动,纪念1989年北京的天安门广场镇压事件
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But the Basic Law guarantees that Chinese authorities cannot stifle dissent in Hong Kong with an iron fist, as they do across the mainland and in the autonomous regions of Tibet and Xinjiang. Analysts say that has forced Beijing to chip away at the independence of Hong Kong’s institutions by other means — for example, by pressing the extradition plan.
但《基本法》保证,中国当局不能像在中国大陆以及西藏新疆自治区那样,用铁腕手段压制香港的异见人士。分析人士表示,这迫使北京以其他方式削弱香港机构的独立性,例如推动引渡方案。
What is the extradition plan?
引渡方案是什么?
The bill would allow Hong Kong to detain and transfer people wanted in countries and territories with which it has no formal extradition agreements, including Taiwan and the Chinese mainland. Carrie Lam, Hong Kong’s chief executive, has said the new law is urgently needed to prosecute a Hong Kong man who is wanted in Taiwan for the murder of his girlfriend.
该法案允许香港拘留和转移在同它没有正式引渡协议的国家和地区(包括台湾和中国大陆)遭到通缉的人员。香港最高行政长官林郑月娥表示,要对一名因谋杀女友而在台湾被通缉的香港男子提起公诉,迫切需要新法律。
Critics contend that the law would allow virtually anyone in the city to be picked up and detained in mainland China, a country in which judges must follow the orders of the Communist Party. They fear the new law would not just target criminals but political activists as well.
批评人士认为,该法实质上将允许香港几乎所有人在中国大陆被逮捕和拘留。在中国,法官必须服从共产党的命令。批评人士担心新法律不仅会针对罪犯,还会针对政治活动人士。
The extradition plan applies to 37 crimes. That excludes political ones, but critics fear the legislation would essentially legalize the sort of abductions to the mainland that have taken place in Hong Kong in recent years. (The mainland authorities are typically not permitted to operate here.)
引渡计划适用于37项犯罪。其中排除了政治罪,但批评人士担心,这项立法将使近年来香港发生的那种人员被绑架到大陆的行为在本质上合法化。(大陆当局通常不可以在香港这么干。)
拟议中的立法将允许在香港这个半自治地区被捕的人被送往中国大陆,这是一个重大的政策转变。
拟议中的立法将允许在香港这个半自治地区被捕的人被送往中国大陆,这是一个重大的政策转变。 Lam Yik Fei for The New York Times
Under the law, the chief executive would need to approve an extradition request before an arrest warrant is issued. A Hong Kong court would also be empowered to check that there is a basic case against a suspect.
根据这项法律,行政长官在发出逮捕令之前,必须批准引渡请求。香港法院亦有权审查针对嫌疑人的基本案件是否存在。
Yet Hong Kong’s subordinate status to the mainland would make it extremely difficult for a local leader to reject an extradition request from her superiors.
然而,香港对大陆的从属地位使地方领导人极难拒绝上级的引渡请求。
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Taiwan, a self-governing democracy, has said it would not comply with any extradition agreement that lumps it together with the Chinese mainland. And many in Hong Kong — where the government has ousted opposition lawmakers and rejected demands for free elections — see the extradition plan as the endgame of a long battle to disable dissent and political opposition in their city.
自治的民主国家台湾表示,不会遵守任何将其与中国大陆混为一谈的引渡协议。在香港,政府驱逐反对派议员,拒绝了自由选举的要求,因此很多香港人认为,引渡计划是一场长期战斗的最后一役,目的是让香港的异见人士和政治反对派失去活动能力。
Who opposes the plan?
谁反对这个方案?
The plan has sparked petitions from people across Hong Kong who fear they could end up in a mainland legal system where the Communist Party routinely prosecutes dissidents and others for political reasons.
该方案引发了香港各界人士的请愿,他们担心自己最终可能会落入大陆的法律体系之中。在大陆,共产党经常出于政治原因起诉异见者和其他人。
Hong Kong is connected to the Chinese mainland by a land border, high-speed rail and a long sea bridge. Residents on both sides cross the border regularly, although mainlanders must apply for permission to enter Hong Kong.
香港与中国大陆之间有陆地边界、高速铁路和一座海上大桥相连。两岸居民都经常过境,但大陆人进入香港必须申请许可证。
周日,一些抗议者将金属栅栏推向警察。
周日,一些抗议者将金属栅栏推向警察。 Lam Yik Fei for The New York Times
An April demonstration against the plan was the city’s biggest in five years, and anger over it led to scuffles in Hong Kong’s legislature last month.
今年4月,为反对该方案,香港爆发了五年来规模最大的的示威活动,上月,民众对该计划的愤怒导致香港立法会发生混战
Sunday’s protest, which stretched for more than a mile through canyons of downtown skyscrapers, may have been the largest here since 2003, when half a million marchers demonstrated against a Beijing-backed package of national security laws prohibiting sedition, subversion and treason against the Chinese government.
周日的抗议活动在市中心摩天大楼之间的街道上绵延了1.6公里以上,可能是自2003年以来规模最大的一次抗议活动,那一年,50万游行者举行抗议活动,反对北京支持的一系列禁止煽动叛乱、颠覆国家政权和叛国的国家安全法。
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What happens next?
接下来会发生什么?
Another round of protests has been called for Wednesday, as Hong Kong’s legislature resumes consideration of the bill. A vote on the measure is expected on June 27.
周三,随着香港立法会重新审议该法案,人们呼吁举行新一轮抗议活动。预计该法案将于6月27日进行表决。
In 2003, the Hong Kong government shelved its proposed national security legislation, known as Article 23, after demonstrators said it threatened civil liberties enshrined in the Basic Law. Opposition to the extradition bill is even higher, according to a recent poll by the University of Hong Kong.
2003年,香港政府搁置了其所提出的国家安全法第23条,此前示威者表示,该法威胁到了《基本法》规定的公民自由。香港大学最近的一项民意调查显示,反对引渡法案的人还要更多。
Because pro-Beijing lawmakers hold 43 of 70 seats in the Hong Kong legislature, the bill is likely to pass unless the government backs down. Ms. Lam said on Monday that she would not.
由于亲北京的立法会议员在香港立法会70个席位中占43席,除非政府做出让步,否则该法案很可能获得通过。林郑月娥于周一表示不会让步。
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Summary | 6 Annotations
. Here’s the key background.
2019/07/01 01:56
Why is Beijing meddling in Hong Kong?
2019/07/01 01:56
What is the extradition plan?
2019/07/01 01:56
Critics contend that the law would allow virtually anyone in the city to be picked up and detained in mainland China, a country in which judges must follow the orders of the Communist Party. They fear the new law would not just target criminals but political activists as well.
2019/07/01 01:57
The extradition plan applies to 37 crimes. That excludes political ones, but critics fear the legislation would essentially legalize the sort of abductions to the mainland that have taken place in Hong Kong in recent years.
2019/07/01 01:57
An April demonstration against the plan was the city’s biggest in five years, and anger over it led to scuffles in Hong Kong’s legislature last month.
2019/07/01 01:57